Presentation on theme: "Test #1 Notes – Con’t Concept Map #2 Classification of Matter."— Presentation transcript:
Test #1 Notes – Con’t Concept Map #2 Classification of Matter
The Phases (States) of Matter 1.Solid (s) * definite shape & definite volume * particles are in a regular, geometric pattern or crystalline shape * particles vibrate in fixed positions 2.Liquid (l) * take shape of container, definite volume * particles can flow 3.Gas (g) * expand to completely fill container * no definite shape or volume Note - Vapor refers to a substance that is not normally a gas. (aq) = Aqueous = the substance is dissolved in water.
4. The phases differ due to differences in the: a) arrangement or distance between their particles b) attraction between their particles. Phases – con’t Solid Liquid Gas
The Three Classes of Matter: Elements Compounds Mixtures Matter Substance Mixtures of Substances (fixed composition) (composition varies) Elements Compounds Heterogeneous Homogeneous (these are homogeneous) Suspensions Solutions
Models 1.Elements (made of a single kind of atom) Monatomic Element or Diatomic Element He H 2 2.Compounds (hook different atoms together to show they are chemically combined) Water is a compound (H 2 O) 3.Mixtures (the different substances aren’t hooked – shows they are physically combined) Mixture of Water (H 2 O) & Oxygen (O 2 )
Elements 1. Elements are substances composed of atoms that cannot be broken down any further. 2.A particular element contains atoms having the same atomic number. 3.Some examples: Iron (Fe) or Hydrogen (H 2 )
Elements – con’t 4.Some elements exist in several different forms. They have different structures & different properties. (Allotropes) Example: Forms of solid Carbon
Elements – con’t Example: Forms of Oxygen gas Most oxygen in the air is O 2. This is the odorless gas that sustains life. Ozone is O 3. Ozone gas has a sharp odor and damages respiratory tissue.
Compounds 1. Compounds are substances composed of atoms from 2 or more different elements chemically combined in a fixed or definite ratio. 2. The compound’s properties are not the same as its component’s original properties. Examples: Water (H 2 O) Sodium Chloride (NaCl)
Mixtures 1.Mixtures are composed of 2 or more different substances physically combined in any ratio. 2.The composition of a mixture is not fixed. For example grape juice may be really sweet or tart. 3.The components of a mixture keep (or retain) their original individual properties. Examples: Raisin Bran, Chex Mix, Koolaid, Italian Salad Dressing
E, C, or M? 1.NH 3 (g) 2.Br 2 (l) 3.H 2 SO 4 (aq) 4.Cu(s) 5.NaCl(s) 6.NaCl(aq) Answers: C, E, M, E, C, M
Homogeneous Mixtures You cannot see the different parts because the particles are uniformly or evenly mixed resulting in constant properties throughout that sample. Examples: Kool-Aid, Air, Milk, Saltwater.
Heterogeneous Mixture You can see visibly different parts because the particles are NOT uniformly mixed. Examples: Soil, Vegetable soup, Trail mix, Lucky charms
Miscible vs Immiscible 1.Miscible refers to mixtures of liquids that dissolve in each other Example: water & vinegar 2.Immiscible refers to mixtures of liquids that separate (don’t dissolve) Example: water & oil
Solutions 1.A solution is a homogeneous mixture containing a solute dissolved in a solvent. Example: sugar water C 12 H 22 O 11 (aq) (aq) = aqueous = dissolved in water 2. The solute (sugar) is the substance dissolved. 3. The solvent (water) does the dissolving. 4.They cannot be separated by filtration. Note: If a solid dissolves, we say it is soluble.
Suspensions 1.A suspension is a heterogeneous mixture of an insoluble solid suspended in a liquid. 2.The insoluble solid doesn’t dissolve, it will settle on standing. 3.An example is cornstarch mixed in water. 4.They can be separated by filtration.
Separation of Mixtures 1.The components in a mixtures can be separated physically - based on differences in properties such as color, density, solubility, etc. 2.Some examples: (see pictures) Filtration (particle size) Chromatography (absorption) Distillation (boiling point)
Filtration In filtration, larger solid particles are separated from smaller liquid particles by passing the mixture through a filter.
Distillation Distillation uses differences in the boiling points to separate a homogeneous mixture into its components.
Chromatography Separation of components of black ink Chromatography separates substances in a mixture based on differences in absorption up a strip of paper dipped in a solvent.
Separation of Compounds Occurs only by chemical reaction Example: Decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen gas