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Chapter 2 Perception 2-1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Perception 2-1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 2 Perception 2-1 CONSUMER BEHAVIOR, 10e Michael R. Solomon

2 2-2 Sensation and Perception Sensation is the immediate response of our sensory receptors (eyes, ears, nose, mouth, and fingers) to basic stimuli (light, color, sound, odor, and texture). Perception is the process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted.

3 2-3 The Perceptual Process We receive external stimuli through our five senses

4 2-4 Sensory Systems Vision Scent Sound Touch Taste

5 2-5 Vision ColorColor Color provokes emotion Reactions to color are biological and cultural Color in the United States is becoming brighter and more complex Trade dress: colors associated with specific companies

6 2-6 Psycho-physical Illusions Which line is longer: horizontal or vertical? If you’re given two 24 oz. glasses, will you pour more into the shorter, wider glass or the taller glass?

7 2-7 Smell Odors create mood and promote memories: Coffee = childhood, home Cinnamon buns = sex Marketers use scents: Inside products In atmospherics In promotions (e.g., scratch ‘n sniff)

8 2-8 Hearing Sound affects people’s feelings and behaviors Phonemes: individual sounds that might be more or less preferred by consumers Example: “i” brands are “lighter” than “a” brands Muzak uses sound and music to create mood High tempo = more stimulation, “shop fast” Slower tempo = more relaxing, “slow down and stay awhile”

9 2-9 Touch Haptic Senses — or “touch”— is the most basic of senses; we learn this before vision and smell Haptic senses affect product experience and judgment Kansei engineering: Japanese philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements Marketers that use touch: perfume companies, car makers, furniture manufacturers

10 The Importance of Product Design The design of a product is a key driver of its success or failure. Appealing to multiple senses 2-10

11 2-11 Taste Flavor houses develop new concoctions for consumer palates Culture and cultural changes determine desirable tastes Examples: hot peppers, saltiness, spiciness Individual Differences in taste perception

12 For Reflection Some studies suggest that as we age, our sensory detection abilities decline. What are the implications of this phenomenon for marketers who target elderly consumers? 2-12

13 2-13 Psychophysics & Sensory Thresholds Psychophysics: Science that focuses on how the physical environment is integrated into our personal, subjective world Sensory Threshold: the minimum amount of stimulation / stimulus intensity needed to cause a sensation

14 Sensory Thresholds The absolute threshold refers to the minimum amount of stimulation a person can detect on any given sensory channel The differential threshold refers to the ability of a sensory system to detect changes in or differences between two stimuli Weber’s Law 2-14

15 2-15 Sensory Thresholds Differential threshold: differences in sensation between two stimuli Minimum difference between two stimuli needed for detection is the JND (just noticeable difference) Example: packaging updates must be subtle enough over time to keep current customers from recognizing changes

16 2-16 Sensory Thresholds (cont.) Differential thresholds used in pricing strategies: $2 discount on a $10 vs. $100 item Reference price: price against which buyers compare the actual selling price Original price versus sale price Do price changes cause a j.n.d.?

17 Sensory Thresholds The concept of sensory threshold is important for marketing communications 2-17

18 2-18 Subliminal Stimuli & Perception Occurs when stimulus intensity is below the level of consumer’s awareness. Subliminal techniques Embeds: figures that are inserted into magazine advertising by using high-speed photography or airbrushing. Subliminal Auditory Perception: sounds, music, or voice text inserted into advertising. Rumors of subliminal advertising are rampant— well- known brands, political messages, etc. Most research finds subliminal advertising / priming does NOT work.

19 Closure, Gestalt and Mental Schema We interpret the stimuli we attend to according to learned patterns and expectations. 2-19

20 Attention Attention is the extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus People constantly engage in Selective Attention 2-20

21 2-21 Sensory Overload Products and commercial messages often appeal to our senses, but because of the profusion of these messages, most won’t influence us.

22 2-22 Attention Competition for our attention Exposed to 3,500+ ads per day Other stimuli Younger consumers can better process information from more than one medium at a time The multi-tasking “myth”…

23 How Do Marketers Get Attention? Personal Selection Experience Perceptual filters Perceptual vigilance Perceptual defense Adaptation Stimulus Selection Contrast Size Color Position Novelty 2-23

24 2-24 Personal Selection (cont.) Perceptual vigilance: consumers are more likely to be aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs Example: you’re in the market for a car—so you tend to notice car ads and cars on the road more than before Perceptual defense: people see what they want to see— and don’t see what they don’t want to see Example: heavy smoker may block out images of cancer-scarred lungs

25 2-25 Stimulus Selection Factors We are more likely to notice stimuli that differ from others around them So, marketers can create “contrast” through: SizeColorPositionNovelty

26 For Reflection How have you seen brands use size, color, and novelty to encourage you to pay attention to them? Were the techniques effective? 2-26

27 2-27 Interpretation Interpretation refers to the meaning we assign to sensory stimuli Through priming, certain properties of a stimulus evoke a schema

28 2-28 Factors Leading to Adaptation / Habituation IntensityDuration DiscriminationExposure Relevance

29 2-29 Stimulus Organization Gestalt: the whole is greater than the sum of its parts Closure: people perceive an incomplete picture as complete Similarity: consumers group together objects that share similar physical characteristics Figure-ground: one part of the stimulus will dominate (the figure) while the other parts recede into the background (ground)

30 2-30 Application of the Figure-Ground Principle

31 2-31 Interpretational Biases We interpret ambiguous stimuli based on our experiences, expectations, and psychological needs “Confabulation” Confirmation Bias Post-Purchase Distortion Hindsight Bias – “knew it all along”


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