Presentation on theme: "Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers 9-11 Methanol: Formed by catalytic reduction of CO and H 2 at high temperatures and pressure."— Presentation transcript:
Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers 9-11 Methanol: Formed by catalytic reduction of CO and H 2 at high temperatures and pressure. Used as a solvent, a fuel for camp stoves and soldering torches, and as a synthetic intermediate. Highly poisonous. May lead to blindness or death. A possible precursor of gasoline.
Ethanol: Alcohol in alcoholic beverages General depressant High in calories, little nutritional value Metabolically degraded linearly with time Poisonous (lethal concentration ~ 0.4%) Near toxic dose used to treat methanol poisoning Produced by fermentation of sugars and starch Commercially produced by the hydration of ethylene. Used as a solvent, a synthetic intermediate, and as a gasoline additive (gasahol)
2-Propanol: Toxic, but not absorbed through the skin Used as a rubbing alcohol, a solvent, and as a cleaning agent 1,2-Ethanediol (ethylene glycol): Used as an antifreeze (completely miscible with water) Produced from ethene:
1,2,3-Propanetriol (glycerol, glycerine): Non-toxic Major component of fatty tissue Liberated by the action of alkali on fats to form soaps: Phosphoric esters of glycerols are major cell membrane components. Used in lotions, cosmetics, and medicinal preparations.
Forms nitroglycerine upon treatment with nitric acid. Cholesterol: An important steroid alcohol Ethoxyethane (diethyl ether): Formally used as an anesthetic Explosive when mixed with air
Oxacyclopropane (oxirane, ethylene oxide) Industrial chemical intermediate Fumigating agent for seeds and grains Oxacyclopropane derivatives control insect metamorphosis and are formed during enzyme-catalyzed oxidations of aromatic hydrocarbons (highly carcinogenic). Alcohol and ether groups are found in natural products such as morphine and tetrahydrocannabinol:
Lower MW thiols and sulfides are notorious for their foul smells. The odor of the skunk’s defensive spray are thiols and a sulfide: When highly diluted, thiols and sulfides have a pleasant odor: freshly chopped onion or garlic, black tea, grapefruit. The compound responsible for the taste of grapefruit can be tasted in concentrations in the ppb range:
Drugs such as the sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) contain sulfur in their molecular framework: