Presentation on theme: "Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers"— Presentation transcript:
1Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers 9-11Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and EthersMethanol:Formed by catalytic reduction of CO and H2 at high temperatures and pressure.Used as a solvent, a fuel for camp stoves and soldering torches, and as a synthetic intermediate.Highly poisonous. May lead to blindness or death.A possible precursor of gasoline.
2Ethanol:Alcohol in alcoholic beveragesGeneral depressantHigh in calories, little nutritional valueMetabolically degraded linearly with timePoisonous (lethal concentration ~ 0.4%)Near toxic dose used to treat methanol poisoningProduced by fermentation of sugars and starchCommercially produced by the hydration of ethylene.Used as a solvent, a synthetic intermediate, and as a gasoline additive (gasahol)
32-Propanol:Toxic, but not absorbed through the skinUsed as a rubbing alcohol, a solvent, and as a cleaning agent1,2-Ethanediol (ethylene glycol):Used as an antifreeze (completely miscible with water)Produced from ethene:
41,2,3-Propanetriol (glycerol, glycerine): Non-toxicMajor component of fatty tissueLiberated by the action of alkali on fats to form soaps:Phosphoric esters of glycerols are major cell membrane components.Used in lotions, cosmetics, and medicinal preparations.
5Forms nitroglycerine upon treatment with nitric acid. Cholesterol:An important steroid alcoholEthoxyethane (diethyl ether):Formally used as an anestheticExplosive when mixed with air
6Oxacyclopropane (oxirane, ethylene oxide) Industrial chemical intermediateFumigating agent for seeds and grainsOxacyclopropane derivatives control insect metamorphosis and are formed during enzyme-catalyzed oxidations of aromatic hydrocarbons (highly carcinogenic).Alcohol and ether groups are found in natural products such as morphine and tetrahydrocannabinol:
7Lower MW thiols and sulfides are notorious for their foul smells. The odor of the skunk’s defensive spray are thiols and a sulfide:When highly diluted, thiols and sulfides have a pleasant odor:freshly chopped onion or garlic, black tea, grapefruit.The compound responsible for the taste of grapefruit can be tasted in concentrations in the ppb range:
8Drugs such as the sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) contain sulfur in their molecular framework: