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Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers

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Presentation on theme: "Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers"— Presentation transcript:

1 Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers
9-11 Physiological Properties and Uses of Alcohols and Ethers Methanol: Formed by catalytic reduction of CO and H2 at high temperatures and pressure. Used as a solvent, a fuel for camp stoves and soldering torches, and as a synthetic intermediate. Highly poisonous. May lead to blindness or death. A possible precursor of gasoline.

2 Ethanol: Alcohol in alcoholic beverages General depressant High in calories, little nutritional value Metabolically degraded linearly with time Poisonous (lethal concentration ~ 0.4%) Near toxic dose used to treat methanol poisoning Produced by fermentation of sugars and starch Commercially produced by the hydration of ethylene. Used as a solvent, a synthetic intermediate, and as a gasoline additive (gasahol)

3 2-Propanol: Toxic, but not absorbed through the skin Used as a rubbing alcohol, a solvent, and as a cleaning agent 1,2-Ethanediol (ethylene glycol): Used as an antifreeze (completely miscible with water) Produced from ethene:

4 1,2,3-Propanetriol (glycerol, glycerine):
Non-toxic Major component of fatty tissue Liberated by the action of alkali on fats to form soaps: Phosphoric esters of glycerols are major cell membrane components. Used in lotions, cosmetics, and medicinal preparations.

5 Forms nitroglycerine upon treatment with nitric acid.
Cholesterol: An important steroid alcohol Ethoxyethane (diethyl ether): Formally used as an anesthetic Explosive when mixed with air

6 Oxacyclopropane (oxirane, ethylene oxide)
Industrial chemical intermediate Fumigating agent for seeds and grains Oxacyclopropane derivatives control insect metamorphosis and are formed during enzyme-catalyzed oxidations of aromatic hydrocarbons (highly carcinogenic). Alcohol and ether groups are found in natural products such as morphine and tetrahydrocannabinol:

7 Lower MW thiols and sulfides are notorious for their foul smells.
The odor of the skunk’s defensive spray are thiols and a sulfide: When highly diluted, thiols and sulfides have a pleasant odor: freshly chopped onion or garlic, black tea, grapefruit. The compound responsible for the taste of grapefruit can be tasted in concentrations in the ppb range:

8 Drugs such as the sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) contain sulfur in their molecular framework:

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