# Managing Exploration and Modeling AUGUST 19 & 20, 2014 MACOMB INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT Jennifer Gottlieb & Mike Klein Science Consultants.

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Managing Exploration and Modeling AUGUST 19 & 20, 2014 MACOMB INTERMEDIATE SCHOOL DISTRICT Jennifer Gottlieb & Mike Klein Science Consultants

Think of a time when you felt like a scientist.

Orchestra students are musicians; Students on the basketball team are athletes; What opportunities do our science students have to be scientists?

Objectives What does it look like when we explore like scientists? ◦Planning for exploration. What does it mean to develop and use models – like scientists? ◦Planning for developing and using models.

5E Learning Cycle Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate http://www.bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model Today Tomorrow

What does real scientific work look like? As you consider these Apollo 13 clips, who is acting like a scientist?

Example Lesson HOW CAN I SMELL SOMETHING FROM ACROSS THE ROOM? From IQWST: Investigating and Questioning Our World through Science and Technology

IQWST Unit Overview How does an odor get from the source to my nose? Develop initial model Explore: Air is matter – it has mass and volume Explore: Phases of matter How can we model the things gases do? Consensus model: How does an odor get to my nose? todaytomorrow

Drawing a model of odor Imagine that you have a special instrument that allows you to see what makes up odor. The large circle in the drawing represents a spot that is magnified many times, so you can see it up close. Create a model of what you would see if you could focus on one tiny spot in the area between the jar and your nose. From IQWST: Investigating and Questioning Our World through Science and Technology

Is air matter? Does air have mass and volume? Is air matter? Does it have mass and volume? This is the activity I did: These are the patterns and observations I found: These patterns and observations are important because:

Is air matter? Does air have mass and volume? Activity What patterns and observations did you find? Why do you think these patterns and observations are important?

What did students do in this lesson that gave them the opportunity to be scientists?

Essential Features of Classroom Inquiry - Page 12 Is there anything else we might add to our list?

A model for the practice of science Is there anything else we might add to our list?

Next Generation Science Standards: Science and Engineering Practices “Science practice involves doing something and learning something in such a way that doing and learning cannot really be separated. Thus, ‘practice’…encompasses several of the different dictionary definitions of the term. It refers to doing something repeatedly in order to become proficient (as in practicing the trumpet). It refers to learning something so thoroughly that it becomes second nature (as in practicing thrift). And it refers to using one’s knowledge to meet an objective (as in practicing law or practicing teaching).” Ready, Set, Science! Inquiry or practice?

Next Generation Science Standards: Science and Engineering Practices Is there anything else we might add to our list?

Our shift in thinking… FROM THINKING THAT ONE SCIENTIFIC METHOD FITS ALL TO THINKING ABOUT HOW TO ENGAGE OUR STUDENTS IN THE PRACTICES OF SCIENTISTS 1.Asking questions and defining problems 2.Developing and using models 3.Planning and carrying out investigations 4.Analyzing and interpreting data 5.Using mathematics and computational thinking 6.Constructing explanations and designing solutions 7.Engaging in argument from evidence 8.Obtaining, evaluating and communicating information

Our shift in thinking… FROM THINKING THAT “HANDS- ON” SCIENCE IS ESSENTIAL… …TO THINKING THAT ENGAGING STUDENTS EVERY DAY IN SCIENTIFIC PRACTICES AND THINKING IS POWERFUL

Our shift in thinking… FROM LEARNING ABOUT… …TO FIGURING OUT.

Hands-on AND Minds-on!

What does minds-on science learning look like? low cognitive demand high cognitive demand vs

Reflection How does this apply to a 4-8 science class? What are some ideas you have for science exploration makeovers?

“It is time to let the students be the scientists.” p. 18 Read pages 12 – 17. What are some specific ways that you might ramp up the amount of learner self- direction in your classroom?

Exploring in the Laboratory We know that individual humans vary quite a lot from one another – we are different heights and weights; we have different skin, hair, and eye color; the thickness of our hair varies, etc. Is there variation in populations of other types of organisms? Would we see variation in a population of plants? What kind of variation would we see? How would we measure and describe that variation? As a group, develop a protocol for measuring the stem length of a plant. You may use any of the materials provided.

“Instead of planning a lesson by considering what students will be doing during class, we need instead to focus on what they will be thinking and learning.” p. 23 Read pages 104-106. Think of a laboratory experiment that students in your classroom typically perform. How might you release some of the control of the lab to the students as you increase opportunities for student thinking and learning?

Planning Time Task Design What do I want students to experience as scientists? What important ideas do I want students to understand? Instructional Planning What background knowledge will students need in order to be successful in this task? How knowledgeable and comfortable are my students with inquiry thinking? What can they do independently? Which skills can I teach them through this activity? Management What supports and accountability can I design to ensure that all learners succeed? (Page 114) Read pages 107-119 for ideas. Take a lab that you already do with your students and plan ways for students to direct their own learning.

Exploring with an Activity How and why is the surface of the Earth changing?

How is the surface of the Earth changing? What do you notice?

How is the surface of the Earth changing? What do you notice?

How is the surface of the Earth changing? As a group, answer the focus question and list your supporting evidence.

How is the surface of the Earth changing?

“Remember, the demo is not the thing – the thinking is the thing.” p. 123 Choose one to read: Chapter 7: Demonstrations (pages 120 – 134) Chapter 12: Activities (pages 216 – 231) Think of a demonstration or activity that you typically use in your classroom. How might you increase opportunities for student thinking and learning?

Planning Time DESIGNING DEMONSTRATIONS What is the learning goal? Why does this learning goal lend itself best to a demonstration? How will I invite student thinking before, during, and after the demonstration? How will I make the demo inclusive? How will I assess learners’ understanding? (Page 129) ACTIVITY DESIGN What is the purpose of the activity? What do students need to think about and learn through this activity? What do I already have? How need I revise it? How will I set students up for success? What evidence of understanding will be assessed? (Page 227) Take a demo or activity that you already do with your students and plan ways to maximize student thinking and learning.

Sharing As you consider the ideas outlined for each of the makeovers, leave questions and comments on sticky notes.

Welcome Back

Conga Line! List three ideas for exploration makeovers that you plan to implement right away this fall. 1. 2. 3.

Objectives What does it look like when we explore like scientists? ◦Planning for exploration. What does it mean to develop and use models – like scientists? ◦Planning for developing and using models.

5E Learning Cycle Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate http://www.bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model Yesterday Today

What is a model? Operational definition Characteristics ExamplesNon-examples

Typical Model Projects What are students thinking about as they complete this project? How did the author of the book makeover a similar project? What were some of the things she considered?

Typical Model Projects What are students thinking about as they complete this project? How did the author of the book makeover a similar project? What were some of the things she considered? (Activity Chapter – pages 227 – 230)

Model Analysis

How do scientists use models? In science, models are used to… …represent a system (or parts of a system) under study …aid in the development of questions and explanations …generate data that can be used to make predictions …communicate ideas to others

Models in the NGSS classroom “Students can be expected to evaluate and refine models through an iterative cycle of comparing their predictions with the real world and then adjusting them to gain insights into the phenomenon being modeled. As such, models are based on evidence. When new evidence is uncovered that the models can’t explain, models are modified.”

When we say “modeling in the science classroom,” what do we NOT mean?  I’m going to “model” how to do this problem.  I’m going to “model” how to read this book.  I’m going to “model” my thinking as I consider ways to approach this scenario.  I’m going to “model” how to do this experiment.

Modeling in the Classroom What are the things we want our students to do with models in our classrooms?

What does develop and use a model mean? Operational definition Characteristics ExamplesNon-examples

Example Lesson HOW CAN I SMELL SOMETHING FROM ACROSS THE ROOM?

IQWST Unit Overview How does an odor get from the source to my nose? Develop initial model Explore: Air is matter – it has mass and volume Explore: Phases of matter How can we model the things gases do? Consensus model: How does an odor get to my nose? yesterdaytoday

Drawing a model of odor Imagine that you have a special instrument that allows you to see what makes up odor. The large circle in the drawing represents a spot that is magnified many times, so you can see it up close. Create a model of what you would see if you could focus on one tiny spot in the area between the jar and your nose. From IQWST: Investigating and Questioning Our World through Science and Technology

Typical initial model From Krajcik and Merritt. “Engaging Students in Scientific Practices: What does constructing and revising models look like in the science classroom?” Science and Children. March 2012.

Prior understandings Air is matter because it has mass and volume. Air is a gas. Since a gas takes the shape of its container, air must take the shape of its container.

What is inside the box?

How can I model the things gases do? How did you represent air in your model? What do the (lines, dots, shading, other shapes) represent? How does your model account for what you have already learned about air (gases)? What is similar/different between yours and a classmate’s model? Model 1

What does the remaining air do when some air is removed from the box? What is happening inside the box when some air is removed? What is the air in the box doing? Is it staying in one place? What would we look for as evidence that it is staying in one place? How does that idea make sense with the model we have of air so far? Is the air moving? How? Does it move in a particular way(in circles, in a line, randomly)? Does one way or another make sense when we think about how we smell odors?

What does the remaining air do when some air is removed from the box? Do you think the air fills half the box? Explain. (guide students to use the terms mass and volume.) Does less air in the box mean that the mass of the air is less now? Does less air in the box man there is less volume? Does your previous model account for the removal of some of the air? If so, how does it account for this? If not, how might you change your model of air to account for this?

How can I model the things gases do? Where was the air in the flask before air was removed? Where is the remaining air? Does it occupy all of the space? In that part of the box, if we zoom in, what does the air look like? Is it the same as your previous drawing? How are these models the same/different? Do some models do a better job of taking into account the removal of air? How? Model 2

Adding air to a box Think about pumping air into a ball. What happened to the mass of the ball when you added air to it? What does it mean when the mass increases? Is it possible to add more water to a container that is already full of water? Is it possible to add more air to a container already filled with air? How is this possible?

How can I model the things gases do? How do the different models account for adding more air to the full box? Is air moving in the box? Is it moving in any particular manner(in circles, in a line, randomly)? Model 3

Typical student models What evidence will move students toward a particle model? And how might we convince them that there are empty spaces between the particles? From Merritt, Shwartz, and Krajcik. Middle School Students’ Development of the Particle Model of Matter. Presented at NARST, April 2007. p.10

What is inside the syringe?

Pushing on the plunger What did you feel against your finger? Do you think the air was moving? How far could you push in the syringe handle? Why do you think you could push it in? What happened to the air as you pushed the plunger in? Does this model show how air can compress into a smaller space?

Pulling on the plunger How far can you pull the plunger back? What happened to the air as you pulled the plunger back? Does this model show how air can expand into a larger space? How is this similar/different to your observations of the box?

What could air be made of if I can compress it? What is it about a sponge that allows it to be compressed? A piece of bread? How can a sponge explain why air can be compressed? Can a sponge account for the observations we made of the air in the box?

Let’s create a consensus model for gases What have we learned so far about gases? No definite shape No definite volume Can expand Can compress Can be added or removed to and from a container Which model best accounts for all phenomena listed here? Can air move? What evidence is there?

Student model at the end of the unit  A gas is made of particles.  The particles are constantly moving.  There is empty space between the particles. From Krajcik and Merritt. “Engaging Students in Scientific Practices: What does constructing and revising models look like in the science classroom?” Science and Children. March 2012.

5E Learning Cycle Engage Explore Explain Elaborate Evaluate http://www.bscs.org/bscs-5e-instructional-model How might student models help them develop an explanation for a concept?

Planning for modeling From Kenyon, Schwarz, and Hug. “The Benefits of Scientific modeling” Science and Children. October 2008. Choose one of the topics listed in Figure 3 of the article. On the planning tool, expand on these ideas.

Planning for modeling Ecosystems Sun-moon-earth system Water cycle Cells Rock cycle Waves Light Particle model of matter

Model Analysis

Planning for modeling Ecosystems Sun-moon-earth system Water cycle Cells Rock cycle Waves Light Particle model of matter Use the Model Analysis Questions to revise your planning: How is the model similar to that which it represents? How does the model differ from that which it represents? What significant misunderstandings might arise in students’ minds? How might the model be improved?

Sharing Take a photo of any ideas you want to remember. Find a partner and explain to them why you chose to photograph that chart paper.

Assessment Shayna had a small bottle of bromine gas. The bottle was closed with a cork. She tied a string to the cork, and then placed the bottle inside a larger bottle. She sealed the larger bottle shut. (See figure 1) Next, Shayna opened the small bottle by pulling the string connected to the cork. Figure 2 shows what happened after the cork of the small bottle was opened. Draw a model that shows what is happening in this experiment. Explain in writing what is happening in your model. From Merritt, Shwartz, and Krajcik. Middle School Students’ Development of the Particle Model of Matter. Presented at NARST, April 2007. p.12

Assessment From Merritt, Shwartz, and Krajcik. Middle School Students’ Development of the Particle Model of Matter. Presented at NARST, April 2007. p.13

Additional assessment questions Create a model of a gas in a hot room. Using the model you created above, explain how temperature and movement of gas molecules are related. Explain what would happen if the gas in your model was placed in a cold room. Kelly does not understand how a gas can expand and compress. In the space below, create a model that can be used to explain expansion and compression of a gas. Describe to Kelly how your model can explain both expansion and compression.

Assessment As you consider the planning you have done today, what are some assessment questions you might ask students about science content that ask them to construct, evaluate, revise, or use a model?

Reflection  Something to try in the very near future  Something to think about more  Someone to connect with

References

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