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1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Part 2: Identification of sick pigs Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University.

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Presentation on theme: "1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Part 2: Identification of sick pigs Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 VDPAM 445 Swine Topics Part 2: Identification of sick pigs Dr. Alex Ramirez Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Iowa State University

2 2 Identification of sick pigs

3 3 Abnormal Postures  Normal: sternal or lateral recumbency  Dog sitting –Pneumonia, pleuritis  Head extended –Respiratory distress  Arched back –Pain: lameness, polyserositis  Favor limb  Head tilt

4 4 General behavior  Normal: curious, avoid confrontation –Will squeal when held or in pain –Rarely bite BUT will if hand is placed in mouth (reflex action)  Hyperkinetic: nutritional deficiencies, genetics, CNS disease  Listless/lethargic/slow –Systemic illness –Drooping ears –Reluctant or fail to move when menaced

5 5 Specific Pig/Human Interactions  Flight distance –8-10 feet, remember that pigs avoid confrontation in most situations  Boars –Be careful, can be aggressive, tusks can be dangerous, always respect, strangers  Sows with pigs –Show mildly aggressive maternal behavior  Moving forward –Pigs will often try to backup or turn around and escape

6 Flight Zone Elanco Hog-Handling Update Issue 5 6

7 7 Body condition/thriftiness  Normal –Growing pigs: “Bloom”: muscle/fat cover skeleton, full belly  Unthrifty –Skeleton exposed –Hair coat often longer and more dense (dehydration and cachexia)  Off-feed –Empty belly: 36-48 hours after quit eating

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12 12 Conformation  Main emphasis is on muscle/skeleton –Proper angulation of limbs  Humerus is parallel to ground –Uneven toe size contributes to lameness –Meat quality related characteristics: increased muscling and decreased back fat  Reproductive –Abnormal vulva/hermaphrodites –Abnormal underline

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15 15 Physical exam

16 16 Rectal Temperature  Pigs are marginally homeothermic –Increase with stress in little pigs –Increase with high ambient temperatures (all ages)  Normal ranges –Suckling and nursery pigs: 101 to 103-104 F –Finishing pigs: 100 to 102-103 F –Sows: 99 to 101-102 F  Use electronic devices if possible to avoid measuring stress induced fever

17 17 Skin/Eyes  Skin –Hair coat: length and density –Rough/excoriations: mange mites –Lice –Rub marks: poor access to underline, feeders  Eyes –Superficial conjunctival congestion: insects –Tearing: plugged lacrimal ducts or excessive production from irritation

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19 19 Ears/Nose/Tails  Ears: Hematomas, cannibalism, necrosis  Nose –Deviation: lateral/dorsal from atrophic rhinitis –Swellings: Bull nose, improper teeth clipping –Discharges: Blood with AR, mucus/pus with inclusion body rhinitis  Tail –Too short (prone to prolapse), too long (promotes tail biting?) –Cannibalism

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22 22 GI system  Normal stool –Sows and young pigs: well formed, dark gray/green color –Older pigs: formed but softer, green to yellow  Abnormal stool –Form: Loose = diarrhea, Hard = constipation –Color: red = lower bowel hemorrhage, black = upper bowel hemorrhage, white = malabsorption, orange-red = PPE? –Other: odor (foul with TGE), mucus (B. hyo.)  Other: prolapse, vomit (TGE)

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26 26 Respiratory System  Normal: can’t discern  Abnormal: Rate > 30-40 breaths per minute –“Thumps” pronounced/abdominal/labored pattern suggests pneumonia –Tachypnea, no labored pattern: hyperthermia –Not always pneumonia: polyserositis –Dependant on environmental temperature  Hot  increased respiratory rate

27 27 Respiratory Rate Temperature Pig Comfort 25-35 /min 65-75 o F Very comfortable 36-45 /min 75-85 o F Comfortable 46-60 /min 85-90 o F Uncomfortable 61-90 /min 90-95 o F Very uncomfortable 90 + /min 100+ o F Heat Stressed

28 28 Respiratory System  Cough: suggests air way disease/lesions –Yes: M. hyo., SIV  Productive: SIV  Non-productive: M. hyo. –No: PRRSV, PCV2, App  Hemoptosis: App

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30 30 Musculoskeletal System  Lameness: favor one limb, alter posture if multiple limbs involved  Foot lesions: bruises, cracks, overgrown  Splay leg: usually rear legs  Arthritis: most common in young pigs, navel ill  OCD signs: Splay leg in sows due to fracture of tuber ischium, unilateral rear leg lameness due to fracture of femoral cap and joint mice in stifle (palpate crepitus)  Pain: grind teeth, squeal when moved

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32 32 Reproductive/Urinary Systems  Discharges from reproductive tract –Post-farrowing:  Normal = small amount of clear fluid, no odor  Abnormal = increased volume, red-brown color, foul odor –Post-breeding: discharge usually indicates not pregnant –Late gestation: often pregnant (from vagina?)  Urinary tract: red-brown fluid indicates cystitis/nephritis

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34 34 CNS  Most diseases cause irritative response –Typically infections –Convulsions –Hyper extension –Rigidity –Head tilt –Circling –Extension of head in ratcheting pattern with water deprivation

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36 36 Physical Exam Summary  Pigs are not easy to examine up close –Learn to evaluate from a distance –Many clinical signs not specific to a certain disease  Be aware of environment including feed and water availability  Need to develop a “feel” for group health  Post-mortems are often done to reach a specific diagnosis

37 37 Anesthesia

38 38 Anesthetic Considerations  Young pigs (<20#): IV’s more difficult  Sows for C-sections –Ketamine (3 ml) and Acepromzaine (2 ml) to make them lay down –Local with lidocaine #1#2#3 Xylazine2.22.24.4 Ketamine862.2 Telazol------1.14.4 Dosage in mg/kg

39 39 Intravenous Injections  Ear vein is most common –Jugular vein with non-irritating solutions and if 100% success is not critical  Procedure –Use butterfly indwelling catheter –Hold veins off by hand or with rubber band –Place needle in best vein available, will vary by pig –Release hand or cut rubber band –Inject slowly –If irritating solution, inject saline before and after injecting solution

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41 41 Acknowledgements  I would like to recognize others for their significant contributions to this presentation: –Dr. Brad Thacker –Dr. Locke Karriker

42 42 Questions ?

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