The water you drink has been circling around in the water cycle for millions of years - that means the same water exists now as when dinosaurs were on the Earth! Somewhere between 70 and 75 percent of the earth’s surface is covered with water. Your brain is made up of approximately 85% of water and your bones are approximately 33% World Water Day is 22 March and World Toilet Day is 19 November.
Malaysia lies entirely in the equatorial zone. The climate is governed by the regime of the northeast and southwest monsoons. The average temperature throughout the year is very stable (26°C), and the mean annual rainfall is 3,000 millimeters (mm). Streams or river with or without impounding reservoirs contribute about 99% of raw water for water supply in Malaysia with the remaining 1% of raw water coming from groundwater
Out of an annual rainfall volume of 990 cubic kilometers (km 3 ), 360 km 3 (36 percent) are lost to Evapotranspiration. The total surface runoff is 566 km 3, and about 64 km 3 (7 percent of the total annual rainfall) contribute to groundwater recharge. 80 % of the groundwater flow returns to the rivers and is therefore not considered an additional resource.
Water Sustainability Index (WSI) that measures the sustainability of water resources both in terms of availability and usage. The WSI showed a decrease from 64% in 1992 to 33% in 2002 – a reflection that Malaysia’s water resources are rapidly depleting and have been managed unsustainably.
Water quality is the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of water in relationship to a set of standards. Water quality standards are created by state agencies for different types of water bodies and water body locations per desired uses. The primary uses considered for such characterization are parameters which relate to drinking water, safety of human contact, and for health of ecosystems. Industrial pollution is a major cause of water pollution, as well as runoff from agricultural areas, urban stormwater runoff and discharge of untreated sewage (especially in developing countries).
The physical characteristics of water are perhaps the oldest set of factors that people have used to assess water quality. For the most part, these features can be crudely evaluated simply by using our five senses, although special instruments are used to accurately measure them. The five most commonly considered physical characteristics are, taste, odor, temperature, color, suspended solid and turbidity.
Taste & odor – the terms taste and odor are themselves definitive of this parameter. Temperature – usually changes according to the sun and precipitation. Color – pure water is colorless, but water in nature is often colored by foreign substances. Two (2) types of color ; apparent color and true color.
Turbidity in open water may be caused by growth of phytoplankton, human activities that disturb land, such as construction, storm water runoff Turbidity - a measure of the cloudiness of the water and is measure in nephelometric turbity units (NTU).
solids can be dispersed in water in both suspended and dissolved forms. solids suspended in water may consist of inorganic ( clay, silt etc) or organic particles ( algal, cells, bacteria etc)
The chemical characteristics of water are numerous. Every substance that dissolves in water can be called a chemical water quality characteristic. Water is called the "universal solvent" because it dissolves more substances than any other liquid. This means that wherever water goes, either through the ground or through our bodies, it takes along valuable chemicals, minerals, and nutrients. Some of the important chemical characteristic of water are its TDS, DO, COD, BOD, hardness, pH, corrosiveness, conductivity, nitrate-N, iron and manganese.
The material remaining in the water after filtration for suspended solids analysis is considered to be dissolved. This material is left as a solid residue upon evaporation of the water Solvent material result from the solvent action of water on solids, liquids and gases. Examples of inorganic material include mineral, metal and gases. Materials such as decay products of vegetation or from chemical are examples for organic dissolved materials.
DO –analysis to measure the amount of gaseous oxygen (O2) dissolved in an aqueous solution. BOD – The amount of oxygen required by aerobic microorganisms to decompose the organic matter COD – commonly used to indirectly measure the amount of organic compounds in water. Most applications of COD determine the amount of organic pollutants found in surface water (e.g. lakes and rivers).
Water hardness is a measure of the amount of calcium and magnesium salts in water. The simplest way to determine the hardness of water is the lather/froth test: soap or toothpaste, when agitated, lathers easily in soft water but not in hard water
pH is a measure of the acidic or basic (alkaline) nature of a solution. The concentration of the hydrogen ion [H+] activity in a solution determines the pH.
The biological characteristics of a water body refer to a variety of living organisms that can be found in water. These include microscopic viruses, bacteria and protozoan; as well as phytoplankton (microscopic algae), zooplankton (tiny water animals), insects, worms, large plants and fish. Of significance to humans is that disease-causing viruses and bacteria can be present and transported in water. Tests for specific pathogens are usually made only when there is a reason to suspect that those particular organism are present – using indicator organism.
An indicator organism is one whose presence presume that contamination has occurred in the water. 1. The ideal pathogen indicator would; 2. Applicable for all types of water 3. Always be present when pathogens are present 4. Always be absent when pathogens are absent 5. Not interfere with the test result 6. Not a pathogen itself.
In 30 minutes, find the Malaysian Standard for Drinking Water. Last group to arrive need to present their finding
CASE STUDY 1: Interpret The Data Below ParameterSample 1 Sample 2Sample 3 Turbidity (NTU) 0.9210>10 pH188.8.131.52 BOD (mg/l)0.51569 1.Which sample is the best in water quality and the worst? 2.Find out the sources of the samples according to the water quality parameter 3.Discuss on the limit values according to standard of drinking water 4.Any parameter should be include? Why?
Source : Dr. Zulkifli Abdul Rahman, DOE, Malaysia
The objectives are; Pollution prevention Extensive monitoring network Database for baseline studies Three (3) types of water quality monitoring; Groundwater monitoring Marine water monitoring River monitoring
National Monitoring Network Establish in 1978. The aims; a) To establish the status of river water quality; b) To detect changes in water quality as a result of development activities To date, 902 manual stations in 12o basins. Program include : a) In-situ measurements b) Sampling and laboratory analysis ( 24-physico-chemical and biological parameters
In situ measurements of more than six (6) parameters – turbidity, DO, salinity, temperature, pH and electrical conductivity. Lab analysis of as many as 24 other chemical and biological parameters. 10 automatic water quality monitoring stations on major rivers To detect changes in river water quality on a continuous basis. Water quality levels violating the ambient standard for specific parameters will be transmitted real-time to DOE Immediate inspection will be conducted at the suspected point
River classifications for major rivers has been completed – 24 rivers Under the 8 th Malaysian Plan (2001 – 2005) and the 3 rd Outline Perspectives Plan (2001 – 2010), emphasis given to improve river water quality and integrated river basin management. Some river have been set to attain Class II
Program for the pollution prevention improvement of river water quality has been planned and implemented as of 2001. 26 rivers have been identified. In 2001, the program has started with six (6) rivers namely, Langat River, Skudai River, Segget River, Tebrau River, Melaka River and Miri River. The effort aims to ensure the sustainability of the water uses in the river basin
Program Implementation PROGRAMS STRATEGIES: 1. Pollution Control and prevention 2. Sustainable Development through Conservation of Resources 3. Integration of Environmental Factors in Development Planning 4. Promotion of Environmental Education and Awareness 5. Public Participation 6. Inter-Agency and Federal-State Cooperation 7. International Cooperation
CASE STUDY 2: Interpret The Data Below Sampling Location Turbidity (NTU) Color (TCU) pHHardness (ppm) 0.5km from reservoir 3.456.850 0.75km from reservoir 5.1116.350 1 km from reservoir 7.7166.760 1.Based on the results, what is your evaluation of the water coming to the reservoir? 2.What are the possible causes of water quality deterioration in the distribution system? 3.Recommend 3 measures that can be taken to improve the situation. Explain (EXAM!) Table below shows results of water quality monitoring program for a water distribution system:
Monitoring program has proven to be useful although they can be expensive. Such activity becomes more important in the river restoration and rehabilitation works to a desired natural river conditions The need to use latest technology and know-how of river restoration to have an efficient monitoring program.