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Environmental Engineering 441

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1 Environmental Engineering 441
Philadelphia University Faculty of Engineering Department of Civil Engineering First Semester, 2013/2014 Environmental Engineering 441 Lecture 2: Water Chemistry

2 Physical and Chemical properties of water
1 - Organic compounds 2- Inorganic compounds Nutrients Metal Non-Metal

3 1- organic substances The main element of organic compounds is Carbon.
Organic substances may be Natural occurring organic substances includes protein, lipids, carbohydrates and plant pigments Synthetic organic chemicals Pesticides and agrochemicals Surface active agent including emulsifier, wetting agent, foams, detergents Halogenated hydrocarbons ( CHCl3, CHBr3, CHCl2Br, etc Over 120 toxic organic compounds listed on the USEPA Priority Pollutant List including pesticides and solvents

4 2- inorganic chemicals A -Nutrients: Two nutrients are essential for the growth of organisms: Nitrogen Phosphorus Both are indictors of water pollution

5 Nitrogen (N) Source (s)
Elements for protein, chlorophyll and biological compounds Decomposition of compounds animals and human wastes, chemicals (fertilizers) Effect (s) NO3- poisoning to human specially babies below than 6month old and animals NO3-> NO2-(in acidic condition) – will substitute O2 in blood vessel

6 Phosphorus (P) Exist in a form of “inorganic”, and “organic phosphate”. Source (s): readily present in soil fertilizers human wastes (“organic phosphate” domestic wastes (element in detergent) effects (s) Cellular activity and aquatic plants > 0.2 mg/L – disturb coagulation processes in water treatment plants

7 inorganic chemicals B) Ions – anions and cations
Major Ions (conc. In mg/L) such as Ca, Mg, Na, K, SO2, Cl, NO3, HCO3 Minor Ions: Conc in ug/L such as Al, Cu, Fe, Mn Source (s): Minerals readily available from nature Effect (s): Colour, odour, taste and turbidity Deteriorate health (at high concentration)

8 Metals – non toxic and toxic
C) Heavy metals: such as As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, Hg, Se, Ag Source (s) human activities such as mining and industries Effect (s): dangerous disease such as cancer, abortion and deformation in newborn baby

9 Solids(impurities) types of Solids
Dissolved Solids (in Liquid) cannot be removed from liquid without accomplishing a phase change such as distillation, precipitation, adsorption, extraction or high pressure membrane Suspended solids (filterable solids) those solids that can be filtered by a glass fiber filter disc can be removed from water by physical methods such as sedimentation, filtration and centrifugation. Colloidal particles Size in range between dissolved substances and suspended particles Can be removed by high-force centrifugation or filtration – very small pore size Measured by turbidity

10 Solid Measured in mg/L Sources (s): Effects (s):
Inorganic compounds such as clay, sand Organic compounds such plant fibre, human wast Effects (s): Aesthetics Adsorption point/centre for chemical and micro-organism Health aspect

11 Physical and Chemical Properties of water
To illustrate the quality of a tested water qualitatively and quantitatively. Physical Suspended Solids Turbidity Odor Taste Temperature Chemical TDS Alkalinity Hardness Fluoride Metals Nutrients Biological Microorganisms

12 characterization of Water 1- Turbidity
Turbidity: The presence of suspended material such as clay, silt, finely divided organic mater, and other particulate material in water The unit of measure is a Turbidity Unit (TU) or Nephlometric Turbidity Unit (NTU) It’s a measure of the cloudiness River values range from 2 to 200mg/L of SiO2 The EU drinking water upper limit is 10mg/L with a guideline value of 1mg/L

13 2-Color Color in water is caused by dissolved minerals, dyes or humic acids (decomposition of lignin) from plants. Apparent Color: Color that is partly due to suspended solids (SS) True Color (water treatment): Color that is contributed by dissolved solids (DS) after removal of SS Color itself is not usually undesirable from the stand point of health- it indicates that water needs appropriate treatment

14 3- Odor Many organic and inorganic chemicals are odorous including algae and other organisms H2S – hydrogen sulfide sometimes present in ground water and wastewater. Threshold odor is determined by diluting a sample with odor –free water until the last perceptible odor is detectable (dilution factor) 4-Taste Like odor, may be due to decaying micro- organisms or algae or due to high conc. of salts such as Ca & Mg

15 5- Temperature One of the most important parameters in natural surface waters. It influences the number and type of microorganism species present and their rate of activities; affect most chemical reactions; affect solubility of gases e.g oxygen decrease with increase temp. Conc of O2 around 25 degree Celsius In WWTP, T above 36oC, the aerobic MO population tends to be less effective as WW purifiers In rivers, as increased water temp reduces the amount of oxygen in water, thereby making river less desirable for fish, particularly salmonoids.

16 pH The negative log of the hydrogen ion concentration
pH of most mineral waters is 6 to 9 If pH is out side the range 6 – 9, it might kill off the active microbiological population including the aquatics organisms pH is important in ensuring proper chemical treatment

17 Alkalinity Alkalinity measures the buffering capacity of the water against changes in pH; measuring the amount of acid needed to lower the pH in a water sample to a specific endpoint (4.5). Water that has a high alkalinity can accept large doses of acids or bases without altering the pH significantly. Waters with low alkalinity, such as rainwater or distilled water, can experience a drop in the pH with only a minor addition of an acid or base. Alkalinity is expressed as mg (CaCO3)/L

18 In water the only significant contribution to alkalinity are carbonate species and free H+ and OH_
Acid base reaction H2CO H+ +HCO3 HCO H+ + CO32-

19 electrical Conductivity/ conductivity
It is a measure of the ability of an aqueous solution to carry an electric current by the movement of ions. The higher the numbers of ions, the higher magnitude of conductivity Pure water has 0.05uS/cm (microsiemens/cm) Sea water has about uS/cm Groundwater

20 Total Hardness The sum of the divalent metallic cations (Ca & Mg). These cations reacts with soap to form precipitate and with other ions present in water to form scale in boilers. Measured as mg CaCO3/L Two kinds of hardness: carbonate hardness; temporary in characteristics, precipitated through boiling non-carbonate hardness- chloride and sulfate; permanent in characteristic, eliminated through chemical softness / ion exchange WT goal is to provide water with a hardness of less in the range of 75 to 120mg/L as CaCO3 by using softener

21 Hardness Measure of “multivalent” cations in water such as Ca2+,Mg2+, Fe2+, Mn3+ Ca2+ and Mn2+are very important Source (s): natural mineral on earth effect (s): excessive soap usage (a waste !) precipitate form on hardware precipitate in pipe – temperature and pH increases

22 DISSOLVED OXYGEN One of the most important measures of water quality is dissolved oxygen. Oxygen, although poorly soluble in water, is fundamental to aquatic life. Without free dissolved oxygen, streams and lakes become uninhabitable to aerobic organisms, including fish and most invertebrates. It is found that the concentration of DISSOLVED OXYGEN in water is SMALL Dissolved oxygen is inversely proportional to temperature, and the maximum amount of oxygen that can be dissolved in water at 0°C is 14.6 mg/L to 7.6 at 30C.

23 Fluoride Source (s): Effect (s): Fluoride Minerals
not good for health if it is taken in high concentration concentration of 1 mg/L is good for the growth of children teeth excessive concentration – color on teeth and problem in bone growth Fluoride

24 Odour Source (s) inorganic compounds such asminerals, metals, salts
organic compound from petroleum and/or degradation of organic matter  Effect(s) Aesthetici health problems [reaction from sources and other chemicals such as chlorine (Cl)

25 Dissolved oxygen in water is consumed by the oxidation of dissolved ammonia (NH3)and ammonium ion (NH4+)to form the nitrate ion (NO3⎯). NH3(aq) + 2O2(aq) + OH-----NO3-(aq) + 2H2O(aq) The most common substance oxidized by oxygen in water is ORGANIC MATTER OF BIOLOGICAL ORIGIN Such organic matter (such as dead plant material like polymerized carbohydrate below), is oxidised by dissolved oxygen. e.g. CH2O+O2(aq) CO2(g) + H2O(aq)

26 Under oxygen free (anaerobic) conditions dissolved organic matter will decompose if appropriate bacteria are present: 2CH2O ----CH4+ CO2 Such anaerobic conditions are common in SWAMPS and at the bottom of deep lakes The Methane (CH4) produced in this process bubbles up towards the surface of the swamps and is the reason that methane used to be known as ‘marsh 'or ‘swamp 'gas

27 Analysis of Organic substances
Various parameters are used as a measure of the organic strength of wastewater: BOD –Biochemical oxygen demand COD –Chemical oxygen demand  TOC –Total organic carbon VSS –Volatile suspended solid

28 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
The quantity of oxygen utilized by a mixed population of micro organisms to biologically degrade the organic matter in the wastewater under aerobic condition. BOD is the most important parameter in water pollution control. it is used a measure of organic pollution as a basis for estimating the oxygen Needed for biological processes, as and indicator of process performance Expressed in milligrams of oxygen required per liter of wastewater (mg/L).

29 Biochemical Oxygen Demand
BOD : BOD5: is the amount of dissolved oxygen used up from the water by microorganisms as they break down organic material at 20C over a 5-day periods. BOD5 for Rivers if > 5 mg/L, they considered polluted BOD For MWW range mg/L

30 chemical oxygen demand
COD- Determine the amount of oxygen needed to oxidize the organics in a water or wastewater using a strong oxidizing chemical agent- Potassium dichromate rather than using micro-organisms as in BOD It measures the total organic carbon with the exception of some aromatics such as benzene which are not oxidized in the reaction. Indirectly measure amount of organic matter in the water sample Faster determination of oxygen demand in a water sample, than BOD It takes shorter time ( 2hrs) compared to 5 days for BOD5 The EU upper limit of 125mg/L for treated wastewaters prior to discharge to rivers

31 Relation between COD and BOD
COD > BOD COD ~ ultimate BOD COD/BOD ~ 2, biodegradable organic COD >> BOD, non-biodegradable organic

32 total Organic Carbon- TOC
TOC- : measures all carbon as CO2 in mg/L Inorganic carbon ( HCO3, CO2, CO3, etc) must be removed prior test by acidifying and aerating the sample. Theoretically the COD is 2.66 times greater than TOC

33 Solids- Sources of Suspended Solids
Inorganic -Clay -Silt Source – Surface Waters; Domestic WW; Industrial WW Organic -Plant Fiber -Biological Solids (Algae Cells; Bacteria;) Source – Surface Waters; Domestic WW; Industrial WW Immiscible liquids -Oils -Grease Source- Surface waters; Domestic WW and Industrial WW Although some dissolved solids may be perceived by physical senses they fall under chemical



36 Microbiological Characteristics
Water must be free from diseases-producing organisms (pathogen). These organisms include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminthes (worms) Techniques for comprehensive bacteriological examination are complex and time consuming Indicative tests were developed to indicate the relative degree of Microbial contamination: Escherichia Coli (E. Coli)- intestinal Tracts Aerobactor aerogenes- Urinary tracts Total Coliform test Two protozoa Giardia cysts Cryptosporidium oocycts Both pathogens carried by animal and cause gastrointestinal illness

37 Biological Indicator microorganism
Their presence shows that pollution has occurred and suggests the TYPE and LEVEL of pollution. Indicator microorganism properties:  Can be used for all types of water   Always present when pathogen is present  Always absent when pathogen is absent  Easily experimented and give reliable results Typical indicators used are coliform group Coliform group: fecal coliform e.g.E.Coli Total coliform e.g. fecal coliform, Soil coliform and others

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