Other Parameters Color Odor Opaque and grayish white Changes to yellowish white as days of abstinence ↑. Blood gives it a reddish brownish color. ↓ conc. And WBCs ► transparent and watery consistency. The odor of the flower of the chestnut plant. Odor is caused by oxidation of the spermin secreted by the prostate. Absence of odor ► Abnormal prostate function due to infection
The pH SHOULD BE WITHIN RANGE ( 7.2-8) Human semen should liquefy at pH 6.9- 8.8 within 20- 30 minutes. > 8 → Acute prostatitis, vesiculitis or bilateral epididymites. <7 → Obstruction of ejaculatory ducts, only prostatic fluid secreted. <7.2-► <6 → chronic infection.
1-FRUCTOSE A sperm metabolite Done to check that ducts are normal. Fructose levels are androgen dependant ↓ Low levels →androgen deficiency
2- L-CARNITINE Epididimal function is marked by L- carnitine. (↑ levels →none - Obstructive azoospermia. ↓ levels→ obstructive azoospermia. (post epididymal)
3- (PAP) Prostatic Acid Phosphatase Prostatic Activity is Measured by seminal Acid Phosphatase (PAP) ↑ Acid phosphatase → obstructed ejaculatory ducts. (↓ semen volume, ↓ fructose.) PAP test determines the health of the prostate.
Other tests 4-Transferrin 5- Zinc and Selinuim Sertoli cells are the source of 80%. Very ↓ indicate Azoospermia. ↓ Low in oligospermia. ↑ Highest in normal men. Essential for germinal cell differ., and normal spermatogenesis, and sperm function. Selenium deficiency leads to anomalies of neck and midpiece. Zn ►chromatin decondensation.
Mature & Immature eggs Photo of a very immature egg Corona and cumulus cells are tightly packed around the egg IVF image of a mature egg on the day of egg retrieval We call this the metaphase II, or "M2" stage The presence of the polar body (red arrow) shows that the egg is mature
THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN IVF AND ICSI IN IVF NATURAL SELECTION THE ZONA PELLUCIDA IS ABLE TO IDENTIFY GENETICALLY ALTERED SPERMATOZOA GENETICALLY ALTERED SPERMATOZOA WITH POOR MOTILITY AND DNA DAMAGE HAVE LOW FITNESS IN OOCYTE FERTILIZATION IN ICSI THE NATURAL PROCESS OF SPERM /OOCYTE INTERACTION IS BYPASSED.