Head accelerates this way Cupula gets pushed Fluid goes this way
Vestibular System (Balance) Head accelerates this way Cupula gets pushed Fluid goes this way
Vestibular System (Balance) movement of the cupula is detected by hair cells hair cells in the vestibular system are more sensitive than hair cells on the basilar membrane!
Vestibular, Visual, and Proprioceptive Systems Work Together Balance is a multimodal sense and is an example of cross-modal integration Try standing on one foot with your eyes closed!
Fun Facts about The Vestibular System Seasickness arises when the vestibular system and the visual system send conflicting information
Fun Facts about The Vestibular System Seasickness arises when the vestibular system and the visual system send conflicting information People can be knocked down by moving walls!
Fun Facts about The Vestibular System Seasickness arises when the vestibular system and the visual system send conflicting information People can be knocked down by moving walls! Alcohol causes the spins by (among other things) changing the density of the fluid in the semicircular canals
Multi-dimensional scaling reveals several “varieties” of tastes: –sweet –salt –bitter –sour –umami (MSG) - possibly a protein receptor –there may also be a lipid (fat) receptor Taste
Olfactory bulb receives input from olfactory receptors which contact mucus in nasal cavity Smell
There are thousands of different receptors for different kinds of molecules Smell
Olfactory receptors use a “lock-and-key” mechanism - only specific molecules will bind with a given receptor Smell Receptor Odor Molecules
Odor recognition is excellent in humans but odor identification (naming) is very poor Women tend to be (slightly) better than men at naming smells Smell
Smell is strongly influenced by “top- down” processes such as what you are expecting to smell Smell
Pheromones are not smells Pheromones are chemical signals sent from one animal to another Pheromones
Pheromones either induce a behavior in another animal or cause some physiological change Very common in insects...not so common in mammals...unclear role in humans Pheromones
For example: Androstenone, found in male pig saliva, causes a female pig to allow the male to mate with her Fun Facts about Pheromones
androstenone is also found in the sweat of human males! Does androstenone (or pheromones in general) affect humans? Design an (ethical) experiment… Fun Facts about Pheromones
Kirk-Smith & Booth (1980) sprayed some of the seats in a dentist’s waiting room with androstenone Compared to a control condition, more women used the androstenone seat Fun Facts about Pheromones
Fewer men used the androstenone seat ! Fun Facts about Pheromones
Other possible ways in which pheromones influence humans: –synchronization of menstrual cycles –mate selection - attraction to opposite major histocompatibility complex Pheromones
Pheromones do not control behavior! Human behavior is largely under top- down influences, but may be affected subtly by pheromones It is unclear whether molecules such as androstenone even qualify as pheromones - they may be just like other odour molecules Pheromones
“It is now possible to manufacture synthetic human pheromones and such compounds are often used in research as they are relatively easy to make, convenient to store, and easy to apply.” Pheromones