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Exam 1 Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday next week WebCT testing centre Covers everything up to and including hearing (i.e. the previous lecture)

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Presentation on theme: "Exam 1 Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday next week WebCT testing centre Covers everything up to and including hearing (i.e. the previous lecture)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exam 1 Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday next week WebCT testing centre Covers everything up to and including hearing (i.e. the previous lecture)

2 Exam 1 Karla will host a review session –PE250 –3:00 to 4:00 Friday February 4 –Bring specific questions to ask

3 A quick peek at all the other sensory systems we don’t have time to consider Touch, Taste, Smell, Proprioception, Thermoception and Balance

4 How do we Stay Balanced? The Vestibular System

5 Vestibular System (Balance)

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8 Head accelerates this way Cupula gets pushed Fluid goes this way

9 Vestibular System (Balance) Head accelerates this way Cupula gets pushed Fluid goes this way

10 Vestibular System (Balance) movement of the cupula is detected by hair cells hair cells in the vestibular system are more sensitive than hair cells on the basilar membrane!

11 Vestibular, Visual, and Proprioceptive Systems Work Together Balance is a multimodal sense and is an example of cross-modal integration Try standing on one foot with your eyes closed!

12 Fun Facts about The Vestibular System Seasickness arises when the vestibular system and the visual system send conflicting information

13 Fun Facts about The Vestibular System Seasickness arises when the vestibular system and the visual system send conflicting information People can be knocked down by moving walls!

14 Fun Facts about The Vestibular System Seasickness arises when the vestibular system and the visual system send conflicting information People can be knocked down by moving walls! Alcohol causes the spins by (among other things) changing the density of the fluid in the semicircular canals

15 Sensory Systems: Touch, temperature, taste, smell

16 There are a variety of touch receptors

17 Touch receptors send signals to the somatosensory cortex via long axons in the spinal cord Signals are sent to the opposite (contralateral) side of the brain

18 Wilder Penfield - Montreal Neurological Institue ’s Found somatotopic map by stimulating brain during surgery The Homunculus

19 Two classes of thermoreceptors: warm and cold Thermoception

20 Taste (Gustation) Taste buds contain chemical receptors

21 Taste What are the various “tastes”?

22 Multi-dimensional scaling reveals several “varieties” of tastes: –sweet –salt –bitter –sour –umami (MSG) - possibly a protein receptor –there may also be a lipid (fat) receptor Taste

23 Olfactory bulb receives input from olfactory receptors which contact mucus in nasal cavity Smell

24 There are thousands of different receptors for different kinds of molecules Smell

25 Olfactory receptors use a “lock-and-key” mechanism - only specific molecules will bind with a given receptor Smell Receptor Odor Molecules

26 Odor recognition is excellent in humans but odor identification (naming) is very poor Women tend to be (slightly) better than men at naming smells Smell

27 Smell is strongly influenced by “top- down” processes such as what you are expecting to smell Smell

28 Pheromones are not smells Pheromones are chemical signals sent from one animal to another Pheromones

29 Pheromones either induce a behavior in another animal or cause some physiological change Very common in insects...not so common in mammals...unclear role in humans Pheromones

30 For example: Androstenone, found in male pig saliva, causes a female pig to allow the male to mate with her Fun Facts about Pheromones

31 androstenone is also found in the sweat of human males! Does androstenone (or pheromones in general) affect humans? Design an (ethical) experiment… Fun Facts about Pheromones

32 Kirk-Smith & Booth (1980) sprayed some of the seats in a dentist’s waiting room with androstenone Compared to a control condition, more women used the androstenone seat Fun Facts about Pheromones

33 Fewer men used the androstenone seat ! Fun Facts about Pheromones

34 Other possible ways in which pheromones influence humans: –synchronization of menstrual cycles –mate selection - attraction to opposite major histocompatibility complex Pheromones

35 Pheromones do not control behavior! Human behavior is largely under top- down influences, but may be affected subtly by pheromones It is unclear whether molecules such as androstenone even qualify as pheromones - they may be just like other odour molecules Pheromones

36 “It is now possible to manufacture synthetic human pheromones and such compounds are often used in research as they are relatively easy to make, convenient to store, and easy to apply.” Pheromones


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