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Finding and Fixing Comma Splices, Run-Ons and Fragments.

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Presentation on theme: "Finding and Fixing Comma Splices, Run-Ons and Fragments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Finding and Fixing Comma Splices, Run-Ons and Fragments

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3 Help you identify common sentence errors Give you easy ways to make corrections Enable you to develop your own personal editing checklist

4 In order to identify a fragment, you need to know what makes up a sentence. Subject + verb. A subject is a noun – but you can have lots of other parts of speech attached to that noun (Prepositional Phrase) (adjectives) SUBJECT NOUN + verb In the morning, the beautiful tiny bird sings loudly. (Adverb clause), SUBJECT NOUN + verb While I was eating, he watched television. SUBJECT NOUN + adjective clause + verb The girl who has three sisters has lots of clothes.

5 There are four different types of sentences in academic American English Simple – also called an Independent Clause Compound – two independent clauses joined together Complex – a dependent clause and an independent clause Compound Complex – two independent clauses joined with at least one dependent clause Questions about Clauses or Phrases? Click here. Questions about Sentence Types, Click here To continue

6 Unlock the clues to discover the answer

7 A clause is a collection of words that has both a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent. Examples: I enjoy working at PGCC. Because working at PGCC is enjoyable Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

8 A clause is a collection of words that has both a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent. Examples: I enjoy working at PGCC. Because working at PGCC is enjoyable SUBJECT Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

9 A clause is a collection of words that has both a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent. Examples: I enjoy working at PGCC. Because working at PGCC is enjoyable VERB Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

10 A clause is a collection of words that has both a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent. Examples: I enjoy working at PGCC. Because working at PGCC is enjoyable INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

11 A clause is a collection of words that has both a subject and a verb. There are two types of clauses: independent and dependent. Examples: I enjoy working at PGCC. Because working at PGCC is enjoyable INDEPENDENT DEPENDENT Dependent Word Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

12 An Independent Clause is a complete thought. At a minimum, it contains a subject and a verb. Note: A command independent clause has an implied subject – you. Example: Close the window. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

13 A Dependent Clause is an incomplete thought. It contains a subject and a verb, but it also has a dependent word. If left unattached to an independent clause, the listener or reader may be left with unanswered questions. Example The apartment where he lives While I was out Although driving can be challenging Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

14 There are numerous dependent words that are used to convey meaning. A few are listed below. After Although As Because Before Even if Even though If In order to Just as Like Since Unless Until Whereas When Where While Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

15 A Phrase is a collection of two or more words that do not have a subject/verb relationship. Examples: Walking on the beach In the afternoon Someone on the phone Beautiful child Yelled on the phone After graduation Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

16 In the following exercise, determine if the collection of words is a Phrase, Independent Clause or a Dependent Clause. Things to think about: To do this, identify nouns and/or verbs. If there isn’t a subject and verb, it can’t be a clause! It may be a phrase. Is the collection of words a complete thought? Is there a dependent word? Click here to return to CS/Frag /RO presentation Click here to go to practice

17 1.after the soccer game ended 2.at the store 3.Gina came into the store 4.although I could not play 5.the running water 6.from earlier centuries 7.before a hurricane occurs 8.during the rainy season 9.I took a quick jog 10.Just as he passed by 11.through the winter months 12.to do the paper route 13.jumping rope 14.will have finished Besides identification, another way to practice is to create independent clauses from the dependent clauses and phrases. Example: During the rainy season (phrase) IC: The jungle comes alive during the rainy season. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

18 1.While the baby slept 2.In the moonlight 3.Running is fun 4.The student’s grades 5.approached silently 6.Giraffes eat leaves 7.Throughout our time together 8.Understanding his meaning 9.Although he apologized 10.The audience clapped 11.On the broken steps 12.The baby’s surprising long hair 13.In order to succeed 14.The team won Besides identification, another way to practice is to create independent clauses from the dependent clauses and phrases. Example: During the rainy season (phrase) IC: The jungle comes alive during the rainy season. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

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20 Simple Compound Complex Compound Complex Understanding how these sentences are constructed will enhance your writing. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

21 Also known as an Independent Clause (IC) A complete thought Made up of a Subject and a Verb Can have a compound subject and/or a compound verb May not have a stated subject (in command sentences) Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

22 S V = IC Examples: I went to the store. Olu and Maria got married. Samira and Oscar went home and made dinner. Don’t drink that coffee! Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

23 Made up of two Independent Clauses joined by a coordinator (a conjunction or a transitional word) Conjunctions: FANBOYS Always proceeded by a comma Transitional Word: Always proceeded by a semicolon and followed by a comma Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

24 con IC ( SV ) con IC ( SV ) = Compound Examples:, and Olu got married to Maria, and they moved to Washington, DC., so Samira made dinner, so Oscar did the dishes. ; however, We spent time together ; however, it wasn’t always a good experience. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

25 Made up of at least one Independent Clause (IC) and one Dependent Clause (DC) dependent word (subordinator) DC = dependent word (subordinator) SV. dep Some dependent words can also act as the subject of the dependent clause. DC= dep V A dependent clause is not a complete thought. Comma Rules: DC, IC. IC DC. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

26 dep DC ( depSV ) IC ( SV ) = Complex Examples: after Olu got married after he moved to Washington, DC. While, While Samira made dinner, Oscar did the dishes. that The storybook that I read to my son made him laugh. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

27 Made up of at least two Independent Clauses joined by a coordinator (a conjunction or a transitional word) and a Dependent Clause Must meet the requirements of both Compound and Complex sentences. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

28 depcon DC (dep SV) IC ( SV ) con IC ( SV ) Examples: after, and Olu got married to Maria after he immigrated, and they decided to live in Washington, DC., sowho Samira made dinner, so Oscar, who was a good husband, did the dishes. ; however, because We spent a lot of time together ; however, it wasn’t always a good experience because we frequently argued. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

29 Identify the Sentence Type: Although he was a nice person, he didn’t have many friends. She frequented the library; however, she never checked out any books. When the police made an arrest, the neighbors were relieved. The noise of the airplane rattled the windows, and it scared the animals. When he graduated, he looked for a job, but he couldn’t find one that suited him. The dog ran after the cat. The rainstorm lasted into the evening and caused flooding. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

30 Identify the Sentence Type: CX: Although he was a nice person, he didn’t have many friends. CO: She frequented the library; however, she never checked out any books. CX: When the police made an arrest, the neighbors were relieved. CO: The noise of the airplane rattled the windows, and it scared the animals. COCX: When he graduated, he looked for a job, but he couldn’t find one that suited him. S: The dog ran after the cat. S: The rainstorm lasted into the evening and caused flooding. Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

31 Use these clauses to practice creating sentences  when they left  however, the teacher gave the test  she was happy  so they talked  a bird sang in the tree  who was very frightened  if he wanted Click here to return to CS/Frag/RO presentation

32 Make your sentence errors disappear Guarantee “A” papers But it will help you get closer to your goal of less red, more well said

33 Read the following paragraph and try to identify errors with sentence structure. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

34 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. 1.Can you identify the subject and verb? 2.There is no verb! This is a FRAGMENT. 3.Fix the problem by adding a verb. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung dis1.1.ease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

35 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction. 1.Can you identify the subject and verb? 2.Yes. No problems here.

36 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

37 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

38 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

39 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

40 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

41 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.

42 Let’s review one sentence at a time. The many serious effects of smoking. The principle effect is the deterioration of a smoker’s health. Smoking increases the risk of lung disease, high blood pressure, heart attacks, and reduces the flow of oxygen to the brain. Smoking creates respiratory problems prolonged use may lead to emphysema and the need to be hooked up to a machine to pump enough oxygen into the lungs. Another effect of this habit is that smoking breeds halitosis, a smoker's breath always smells foul and repulsive. The strong, offensive odor of smoke in clothing, hair, and skin. The final effect of smoking is that it depletes the pocketbook, smoking has always been an expensive habit, and the price of cigarettes continues to rise. The negative effects of smoking are many. Which one is wondering why people do not find a way to break this harmful addiction.


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