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Marissa Applegate, Shruthi Deivasigamani, Conor Driscoll, Sumeet Jain, Sarah McAlister, Jacquelyn Olwell, Ravi Pancholi, Claire Rhee, David Gabriel Rissman,

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Presentation on theme: "Marissa Applegate, Shruthi Deivasigamani, Conor Driscoll, Sumeet Jain, Sarah McAlister, Jacquelyn Olwell, Ravi Pancholi, Claire Rhee, David Gabriel Rissman,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Marissa Applegate, Shruthi Deivasigamani, Conor Driscoll, Sumeet Jain, Sarah McAlister, Jacquelyn Olwell, Ravi Pancholi, Claire Rhee, David Gabriel Rissman, Adam Rosenstein, Madison Taormina, Justin Zhang Advisors: Dr. Graham Cousens and Zack Vogel

2 Fear Anxiety Directed at a stimulus Dissipates after stimulus is removed Construct: Phasic Fear General uneasiness Long lasting Construct: Sustained Fear

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4 Fear Phasic Fear Central Nucleus Anxiety Sustained Fear Bed Nucleus of Stria Terminalis (BNST)

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6 Experiment 1: Effects of Strain Differences on the Light Enhanced Startle Response in Lewis and Sprague- Dawley Rats Experiment 2: Effects of Nicotine Withdrawal on Discrete Cue and Contextual Conditioned Fear Experiment 3: Nicotine Withdrawal-Induced Anxiety in the Elevated Zero Maze

7 Evaluate genetic differences Measure baseline startle response (1,3) Light-enhanced startle (LES) (2,4,5) Impact on future research Hypotheses – Lewis vs. Sprague-Dawley Greater baseline startle Greater percent increase of LES startle response Sustained fear present after LES

8 Sprague-Dawley Rat H59-H65 6 male Lewis Rat H male

9 A. Coulbourn Precision Animal Shocker B. Light C. Fan D. Plexiglass cover for inner chamber E. Odor Emitter F. Amyl Acetate G. Outer Chamber H. Speaker I. Accelerometer

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11 The Lewis rats had a higher baseline startle response when compared to the Sprague-Dawleys.

12 At the 95 dB level, the Sprague Dawley rats exhibited a higher LES startle response, and a greater percent increase in startle. The Sprague-Dawley also exhibited a sustained fear.

13 At the 105 dB level, the Sprague-Dawley rats still exhibited a higher LES reaction and a greater percent increase.

14 43.5% try to quit smoking Of those, between 70% and 90% fail (6) Connection between nicotine withdrawal and anxiety Treatments to limit withdrawal effects

15 Link between withdrawal and sustained fear Withdrawal and Phasic Fear Hypothesis There will be no effect on phasic fear.

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17 Sprague-Dawley Rat H1, H2, H3, H8, H9 5 male High Dosage of Nicotine (.5mg/kg) Sprague-Dawley Rat H4, H11, H12, H13, H14 5 male Low Dosage of Nicotine (.25mg/kg) Sprague-Dawley Rat H5, H6, H7, H10 4 male Control (Saline) Injected every day for three weeks Tested two hours after injection

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20 Conclusion: Robust contextual fear potentiated startle with no difference between groups

21 Conclusion: No olfactory fear potentiated startle in all groups

22 Elevated zero-maze Nicotine withdrawal leads to anxiety Hypothesis: As nicotine dosage increases and causes a higher withdrawal affect, anxiety, locomotor activity, and time spent in the closed sections of the maze will increase.

23 Walled

24 Rat placed in maze 15 minute testing period Nicotine Injections 2 hour waiting period

25 Nicotine dosage had no effect on the amount of time the rats spent in the open sections of the maze. Nicotine dosage had no effect locomotor activity.

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27 Surprising Data Need more conclusive data Future experiments

28 Dr. Graham Cousens, who is getting married today! Dr. Miyamoto, our fearless leader Myrna Papier, our indispensible organizer Zack Vogel, our epic counselor All the NJGSS Staff And our gracious benefactors: John and Laura Overdeck Bayer Healthcare The Crimmins Family Charitable Foundation NJGSS Alumni and Parents 1984 – 2011 Bristol-Meyer Squibb Roche Kinder Morgan Bain Capital Childrens Charity GlastoSmithKline Novartis

29 Reference Sources 1. Ramos A, Kangerski AL, Basso PF, Da Silva Santos JE, Assreuy J, Vendruscolo LF, Takahashi RN. Evaluation of Lewis and SHR rat strains as a genetic model for the study of anxiety and pain. Behavioral Brain Research Feb; [Internet]. [cited 2011 Jul 27] 129(1-2): Available from: 2. Steiner MA, Lecourt H, Rakotoariniaina A, Jenck F. Favoured genetic background for testing anxiolytics in the fear- potentiated and light-enhanced startle paradigms in the rat. Behavioural Brain Research Aug; [Internet]. [cited 2011 Jul 27] 221(1): Available from: olytics%20in%20the%20fear-potentiated%20and olytics%20in%20the%20fear-potentiated%20and 3. Freet CS, Tesche JD, Tompers DM, Riegel KE, Grigson PS. Lewis rats are more sensitive than Fischer rats to successive negative contrast, but less sensitive to the anxiolytic and appetite-stimulating effects of chlordiazepoxide. Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior Oct; [Internet]. [cited 2011 Jul 27] 85(2): Available from: 4. Davis M, Walker DL, Miles L, Grillon C. Phasic vs sustained fear in rats and humans: role of the extended amygdala in fear vs anxiety. Neuropsychopharmacology Jan; [Internet]. [cited 2011 Jul 27] 35(1): Available from: 5. Jonkman S, Risbrough VB, Geyer MA, Markou A. Spontaneous nicotine withdrawal potentiates the effects of stress in rats. Neuropsychopharmacology Aug; [Internet]. [cited 2011 Jul 27] 33(9): Available from: 6. (Bronars C, Saul J. Increasing Reach of Tobacco Cessation Quitlines: A Review of the Literature and Promising Practices [home page on the Internet]. Phoenix (AZ): North American Quitline Consortium; [Introduction; cited 2011 July 27]. 18 p. Available from:


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