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DO NOW: Describe our sense of hearing, from the moment a sound a made to when we perceive it in the brain.Describe our sense of hearing, from the moment.

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Presentation on theme: "DO NOW: Describe our sense of hearing, from the moment a sound a made to when we perceive it in the brain.Describe our sense of hearing, from the moment."— Presentation transcript:

1 DO NOW: Describe our sense of hearing, from the moment a sound a made to when we perceive it in the brain.Describe our sense of hearing, from the moment a sound a made to when we perceive it in the brain.

2 Other Senses AP Psychology Ms. Desgrosellier

3 Objectives: SWBAT describe the sense of touch.SWBAT describe the sense of touch. SWBAT state the purpose of pain, and describe the biopsychosocial approach to pain.SWBAT state the purpose of pain, and describe the biopsychosocial approach to pain. SWBAT describe the sense of taste, and explain the principle of sensory interaction.SWBAT describe the sense of taste, and explain the principle of sensory interaction. SWBAT describe the sense of smell, and explain why specific odors so easily trigger memories.SWBAT describe the sense of smell, and explain why specific odors so easily trigger memories. SWBAT distinguish between kinesthesis and the vestibular sense.SWBAT distinguish between kinesthesis and the vestibular sense.

4 Touch Touch is essential to our development.Touch is essential to our development. “Touch” is actually a combination of 4 skin senses:“Touch” is actually a combination of 4 skin senses: pressurepressure warmthwarmth coldcold painpain

5 Touch Certain spots on the skin are sensitive to each of these senses.Certain spots on the skin are sensitive to each of these senses. However, there is no simple relationship between what we feel at a given spot and the type of specialized nerve ending found there.However, there is no simple relationship between what we feel at a given spot and the type of specialized nerve ending found there.

6 Touch For example:For example: stroking adjacent pressure spots creates a ticklestroking adjacent pressure spots creates a tickle repeated gentle stroking of a pain spot creates an itching sensationrepeated gentle stroking of a pain spot creates an itching sensation touching adjacent cold and pressure spots triggers a sense of wetness, which you can experience by touching dry, cold metal.touching adjacent cold and pressure spots triggers a sense of wetness, which you can experience by touching dry, cold metal. stimulating nearby cold and warmth spots produces the sensation of hotstimulating nearby cold and warmth spots produces the sensation of hot

7 Pain Pain is your body’s way of telling you something has gone wrong.Pain is your body’s way of telling you something has gone wrong. People born without the ability to feel pain are rare, but they may experience a severe injury without ever being alerted to it by pain.People born without the ability to feel pain are rare, but they may experience a severe injury without ever being alerted to it by pain. They usually die by early adulthood.They usually die by early adulthood. More common are people who live with chronic pain.More common are people who live with chronic pain. hyperalgesia : extreme sensitivity to something that others would find only mildly painful. hyperalgesia : extreme sensitivity to something that others would find only mildly painful.

8 Biological, Psychological, and Social-Cultural Influences on Pain Pain depends on our physiology, experiences and attention.Pain depends on our physiology, experiences and attention. phantom limb sensations : feelings of pain or movement in nonexistent limbs. phantom limb sensations : feelings of pain or movement in nonexistent limbs. Even people born without a limb sometimes perceive sensations from the absent arm or leg.Even people born without a limb sometimes perceive sensations from the absent arm or leg. The brain comes prepared to anticipate that it will be getting information from a body that has limbs.The brain comes prepared to anticipate that it will be getting information from a body that has limbs.

9 Biological, Psychological, and Social-Cultural Influences on Pain tinnitus : a ringing in the ears sensation with no sound stimulus tinnitus : a ringing in the ears sensation with no sound stimulus phantom sights : people who have lost their vision to glaucoma, cataracts, diabetes, or macular degeneration sometimes see nonthreatening hallucinations. phantom sights : people who have lost their vision to glaucoma, cataracts, diabetes, or macular degeneration sometimes see nonthreatening hallucinations. Nerve damage in the taste system can similarly produce taste phantoms, like ice water seeming very sweet.Nerve damage in the taste system can similarly produce taste phantoms, like ice water seeming very sweet.

10 Biological, Psychological, and Social-Cultural Influences on Pain The pain system is not located in a single neural cord running from a sensing device to a definable area in the brain.The pain system is not located in a single neural cord running from a sensing device to a definable area in the brain. Also, no one type of stimulus triggers pain and no special pain receptors.Also, no one type of stimulus triggers pain and no special pain receptors. gate-control theory : the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. gate-control theory : the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological “gate” that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain. The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.The “gate” is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain. Memories of pain are different from other memories as well. We generally overlook a pain’s duration and focus on the level of pain at the peak of pain and the end of the pain.Memories of pain are different from other memories as well. We generally overlook a pain’s duration and focus on the level of pain at the peak of pain and the end of the pain.

11 Pain Control If pain is where the body and mind meet, it should be treatable in both areas as well.If pain is where the body and mind meet, it should be treatable in both areas as well. Pain control can comes in many forms: drugs, surgery, acupuncture, electrical stimulation, massage, exercise hypnosis, relaxation training, thought distraction, etc.Pain control can comes in many forms: drugs, surgery, acupuncture, electrical stimulation, massage, exercise hypnosis, relaxation training, thought distraction, etc.

12 Taste Taste comes from several basic sensations:Taste comes from several basic sensations: sweetsweet soursour saltysalty bitterbitter umami (savory – like meat, cheese and mushrooms)umami (savory – like meat, cheese and mushrooms)

13 Taste Good tastes attract us to energy-rich foods that enabled our ancestors’ survival.Good tastes attract us to energy-rich foods that enabled our ancestors’ survival. Bad tastes help us avoid new foods that might be toxic.Bad tastes help us avoid new foods that might be toxic. Taste is a chemical senseTaste is a chemical sense

14 Taste Each bump on your tongue contains taste buds.Each bump on your tongue contains taste buds. Taste receptors reproduce themselves every week or so, but as you get older, the number of taste buds decreases, as does taste sensitivity.Taste receptors reproduce themselves every week or so, but as you get older, the number of taste buds decreases, as does taste sensitivity. Smoking and alcohol use accelerates the decline of taste buds.Smoking and alcohol use accelerates the decline of taste buds. Emotional responses to taste are hard-wired – if you give a baby something sour they will make the same face as an adult.Emotional responses to taste are hard-wired – if you give a baby something sour they will make the same face as an adult.

15 Sensory interaction Sensory interaction : the principle that one sense may influence another. Sensory interaction : the principle that one sense may influence another. Smell influences our sense of tasteSmell influences our sense of taste If we see a speaker saying one syllable while hearing another, we may perceive a third syllable that blends both inputs.If we see a speaker saying one syllable while hearing another, we may perceive a third syllable that blends both inputs. The senses all interact – the brain blends their inputs.The senses all interact – the brain blends their inputs. Synesthesia : one sort of sensation produces another. Synesthesia : one sort of sensation produces another. e.g. hearing a sound and seeing a color.e.g. hearing a sound and seeing a color. Seeing the number 3 may cause a person to see a color or evoke a taste sensation.Seeing the number 3 may cause a person to see a color or evoke a taste sensation.

16 Smell Olfaction : the experiences of smell. Olfaction : the experiences of smell. Smell is a chemical sense.Smell is a chemical sense. We smell something when molecules of a substance carried in the air reach a tiny cluster of 5 million receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity.We smell something when molecules of a substance carried in the air reach a tiny cluster of 5 million receptor cells at the top of each nasal cavity. An odor cannot be separated into more elemental odors (unlike light).An odor cannot be separated into more elemental odors (unlike light).

17 Smell Odor molecules come in different shapes and sizes and have individual receptor proteins.Odor molecules come in different shapes and sizes and have individual receptor proteins. But we do not have a distinct receptor for each detectable odor – some scents trigger a combination of receptors.But we do not have a distinct receptor for each detectable odor – some scents trigger a combination of receptors. We can detect approximately 10,000 odors.We can detect approximately 10,000 odors. This ability peaks in early adulthood and gradually lessens.This ability peaks in early adulthood and gradually lessens.

18 Smell Odors have the power to evoke memories and feelings.Odors have the power to evoke memories and feelings. There is a direct line between the olfactory area of the brain and the limbic centers associated with memory and emotion.There is a direct line between the olfactory area of the brain and the limbic centers associated with memory and emotion. We have been smelling long before our cerebral cortex had fully evolved.We have been smelling long before our cerebral cortex had fully evolved. Odors can provoke both pleasant and unpleasant memories – even when we can’t identify the exact smell, we can usually associate a personal memory with it.Odors can provoke both pleasant and unpleasant memories – even when we can’t identify the exact smell, we can usually associate a personal memory with it.

19 Body Position and Movement Kinesthesis : the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. Kinesthesis : the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. We receive input from hundreds of muscles just to take a single step.We receive input from hundreds of muscles just to take a single step. Vision interacts with kinesthesis.Vision interacts with kinesthesis.

20 Body Position and Movement Vestibular sense : the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. Vestibular sense : the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance. Specifically monitors the position and movement of the head.Specifically monitors the position and movement of the head. semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear contain fluid that moves when the head rotates or tilts.semicircular canals and vestibular sacs in the inner ear contain fluid that moves when the head rotates or tilts. This movement stimulates hair-like receptors which send messages to the cerebellum at the back of the brain so you can sense your body position and maintain your balance.This movement stimulates hair-like receptors which send messages to the cerebellum at the back of the brain so you can sense your body position and maintain your balance.


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