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Comparative Study of Two Methods for Olfactory Measurement ○ Saeko Amano, Hiroyuki Ueno Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparative Study of Two Methods for Olfactory Measurement ○ Saeko Amano, Hiroyuki Ueno Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparative Study of Two Methods for Olfactory Measurement ○ Saeko Amano, Hiroyuki Ueno Tokyo Metropolitan Research Institute for Environmental Protection Triangle Odor Bag Method and Dynamic Olfactometry and Dynamic Olfactometry

2 Outline of this presentation 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method using GC and HPLC 2. Difference of odour threshold between the European method and the Japanese method 3. Difference among 3 method the European method, the Japanese method and European-like Japanese method

3 Outline of this presentation 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method using GC and HPLC 2. Difference of odour threshold between the European method and the Japanese method 3. Difference among 3 method the European method, the Japanese method and European-like Japanese method

4 Differences between the Japanese method and the European method The Japanese method The European method Dilution Bag & Syringe Flow controller, Needle valve, etc. PresentationDescending Ascending random Step factor 3 2 Sniffing conditionAir in the bag Air emanated from port Panel Selection 5 standard solutions n-Butanol 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method

5 Sample Dilution factor The European method The Japanese method NoDilutionfactor Dilutionfactor Sample, Dilution factor  Hydrogen Sulfide  Hexanal  Propion aldehyde 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method

6 Analytical method Make the original gas Dilute with odor-free air according to European method or Japanese method Adsorb gas to cartridge ( SUPELCO DNPH) Elute with acetnitrile HPLC - UV Trap gas to cold concentration tube Heat tube and inject to GC GC-FPD AldehydeHydrogen Sulfide 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method

7 Result of dilution test -1 ( Hydrogen Sulfide) Hydrogen Sulfide is hardly adsorbed during the test. Recovery (%) Dilution Factor ◆ Dynamic Olfactometer ( The European method) ■ Triangle Odor Bag Method ( The Japanese method) 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method

8 Result of dilution test -2 ( Hexanal) The Japanese method have nice recovery when dilution factor is more than 300. The European method nearly get good recovery of each dilution factor. Recovery (%) Dilution Factor 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method ◆ Dynamic Olfactometer ( The European method) ■ Triangle Odor Bag Method ( The Japanese method)

9 Result of dilution test -3 ( Propion aldehyde) The result is as same as that of hexanal. Recovery (%) Dilution Factor 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method ◆ Dynamic Olfactometer ( The European method) ■ Triangle Odor Bag Method ( The Japanese method)

10 Conclusion of dilution accuracy test The difference of dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method was shown by using Hydrogen Sulfide, hexanal and propionaldehyde as samples. Concerning hydrogen sulfide, both method could get almost 100% recovery. About aldehyde containing hexanal and propionaldehyde, recovery varied a little widely at the European method,however, the European method nearly got good recovery. On the other hand, the Japanese method didn’t get good result when their dilution value was lower. But when dilution factor was more than 300, the Japanese method had good recovery as to the European method. 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method

11 Outline of this presentation 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method using GC and HPLC 2. Difference of odour threshold between the European method and the Japanese method 3. Difference among 3 method the European method, the Japanese method and European-like Japanese method

12 odorant  n-butanol  Hexanal  Hydrogen Sulfide  Trimethylamine  Isobutyric acid  Ethyl Acetate Standard odourants of the European method 2.Difference of odour threshold between two method for olfactory measurement Standard odourants of the Japanese methos Odour quality smell of stinking socks, smell of natto Smell of rotten fish Smell of rotten egg Smell of cutting grass Smell of thinner

13 Olfactory measurement Measurements by both method for each odourant were performed in a same day using same panel members Number of Measurement : 3~ 2.Difference of odour threshold between two method for olfactory measurement

14 Result of odour threshold measurement 2.Difference of odour threshold between European method and Japanese method Except for isobutyric acid, threshold of the European method are higher than that of the Japanese method log Threshold (pp t )

15 Result of odour threshold measurement 2.Difference of odour threshold between European method and Japanese method Concentrations of threshold measured by the European method are about 3-9 times higher than that measured by the Japanese method except for butyric acid. Threshold (pp b )

16 Standard deviation of odour threshold Standard division of each sample is also same between two method. 2.Difference of odour threshold between two method for olfactory measurement Standard deviation

17 Summary of odour threshold’s difference Olfactory measurement was done using 6 odour substances. Except for isobutyric acid, concentrations of threshold measured by the European method are about 3-9 times higher than that measured by the Japanese method. Standard division are also same between two methods. 2.Difference of odour threshold between two method for olfactory measurement

18 Outline of this presentation 1. Dilution accuracy between the European method and the Japanese method using GC and HPLC 2. Difference of odour threshold between the European method and the Japanese method 3. Difference among 3 method the European method, the Japanese method and European-like Japanese method

19 Differences between Japanese method and European method The Japanese method The European method DilutionBag & SyringeFlow controller, Needle valve, etc. PresentationDescending Ascending random Step factor 32 Forced choice 32 Sniffing conditionAir in the bagAir emanated from port Panel Selection 5 standard solutions n-Butanol 3. Difference among three methods

20 Condition of experiment The European method The Japanese method European-like Japanse method Dilution Flow controller, Needle valve, etc. Bag & Syringe Presentation Ascending random Descending Ascending random Step factor 232 Forced choice 232 Sniffing condition Air emanated from port Air in the bag 3. Difference among three methods

21 The European method The Japanese method European-like Japanse method Dilution Flow controller, Needle valve, etc. Bag & Syringe Presentation Ascending random Descending Ascending random Step factor 232 Forced choice 232 Sniffing condition Air emanated from port Air in the bag Condition of experiment 3. Difference among three methods

22 Samples and Panels Samplesn-butanol Source sample of offset printing (mixture of odour) (mixture of odour) Panel members 12 persons (divide 2 groups and 6 members each) (divide 2 groups and 6 members each)Measurements Each measurement was done one time in a day and repeated four days 3. Difference among three methods

23 Differences among 3 methods (offset printing smell) The European method The Japanese method European-like Japanese method 10 x log Odour concentration European-like Japanese method had same log odour conc. as the European method and lower than the Japanese method. Low ←Sensitivity → High 3. Difference among three methods

24 Differences among 3 methods (n-butanol) log Threshold (ppb) Sensitivity of European-like Japanese method is lower than the Japanese method. The European method The Japanese method European-like Japanese method Low ←Sensitivity → High 3. Difference among three methods

25 Results of odour threshold in this year’s ( n-butanol) log Threshold (ppb) ◆ The European method ■ The Japanese method First time Second time Sensitivity by Japanese method are higher than that by European method. This result show same trend as that of offset printing Low ←Sensitivity → High 3. Difference among three methods

26 Summary of difference among 3 method European-like Japanese method( ascending presentation and two forced choice mode) was compared with the European method and the Japanese method. Sensitivity of European-like Japanese method is lower than the Japanese method 3. Difference among three methods

27 Conclusion(1/2) Dilution accuracy of hydrogen sulfide and aldehyde is good on both method when dilution factor is more than 300. Concentrations of threshold measured by the European method are 3-9 times higher than that measured by the Japanese method European-like Japanese method European-like Japanese method had same threshold as the European method.

28 Conclusion(2/2) These results shows that deference between Japanese and European methods is mainly caused by the definition of the threshold, not by dilution method or materials. Main reason may be as follows: Answer of panelist is recognized as “true” when “correct and certain” is observed in the European method while the Japanese method recognize the answer as “true” whenever it is correct.

29 Future Plan Study of difference in race. ( We take a test in Poland on and after tomorrow with your help, and compared with the result in Japanese) ( We take a test in Poland on and after tomorrow with your help, and compared with the result in Japanese) research dilution accuracy of Isobutyric acid research dilution accuracy of Isobutyric acid

30 Thank you for your attention END

31 Conclusion Dilution accuracy of hydrogen sulfide is good on both method. Concerning hexanal, the European method is almost well and the Japanese method as same as that one which is limited Dilution accuracy of hydrogen sulfide is good on both method. Concerning hexanal, the European method is almost well and the Japanese method as same as that one which is limited dilution factor to more than 300. Except for isobutyric acid, concentration s of threshold measured by the European method are about 3-9 times higher than that measured by the Japanese method European-like Japanese method European-like Japanese method had same log odour concentration as the European method in the case of using off-set printing, but difference that of using n-butanol.

32 Result of odour thresold-2 (winter) High ← Sensitivity of panel → low Log Threshold (pp t ) n-Butanol hexanal ◆ Dynamic Olfactometer ■ Triangle Odor Bag Method Isobutyric Acid Ethyl Acetate 2.Difference of odour thresold between European method and Japanese method Except for isobutyric acid, thresold of Europian method are higher than that of Japanese method

33 Result of odour thresold-1 (summer) High ← Sensitivity of panel → low Log Threshold (pp t ) n-Butanol hexanal Hydrogen sulfide Trimethyl amine 2.Difference of odour thresold between European method and Japanese method Thresold of Europian method are higher than that of Japanese method. But standard deviation are different. ◆ Dynamic Olfactometer ■ Triangle Odor Bag Method

34 Main Points におい袋を用いた、オルと同一の希釈倍 数、サンプルの出し方の方法を MethodA とし、オル、におい袋法と比較した。 オフセット印刷臭については、 Method A と折るファクトメーターは同一の臭気濃 度をしめした。 ブタノールについては MethodA のみ高い 閾値を示し、オルファクトとにおいは差 がなかった。 3. Study of difference among three method

35 2 点比較と 3 点比較 臭袋法4 2倍系列 上昇法 臭袋法5 3点比較2点比較 n- ブタノール 個人閾値の全平均 (ppb の対数) (ppb の対数) 標準偏差(個人間 ) 標準偏差(個人内 ) オフセット印刷臭 個人閾値の全平均 (希釈倍数の対数) 標準偏差(個人間 ) 標準偏差(個人内 )

36 Differences among 3 methods European method Japanese method MethodA n-butanol Log Threshold (ppb) Off-set printing Log Odour Conc Concering off-set printing, Method A had same log odour conc. as European method and be different from Japanese method. But as n-butanol, Log threshold of method A is high among 3 methods. 3. Study of difference among three method High ← Sensitivity of panel → Low Low ← log threshold (ppb) → High High ← log odor coc. → Low Caution!

37 差異の要因の定量的検討 上昇法と下降法(閾値の定義(回答方 法)の違い) 2倍系列と3倍系列3点比較と2点比較

38 実験方法 上昇法・下降法等の測定条件を変えて同一臭気 を同一パネルにより両手法によって測定 オルファクトメーターはハードウェア・ソフト ウェアの制約から条件の変更が難しいため、臭 袋法の条件を変更 各条件で 1 日1回ずつ合計4日間測定


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