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Sensory Evaluation of Hay Mylen Bohle Area Extension Agronomist Oregon State University Extension Service Crook County.

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Presentation on theme: "Sensory Evaluation of Hay Mylen Bohle Area Extension Agronomist Oregon State University Extension Service Crook County."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sensory Evaluation of Hay Mylen Bohle Area Extension Agronomist Oregon State University Extension Service Crook County

2 Hay Quality Sensory Evaluation Guidelines Acknowledgement (Utah State University Pub: AG/Forage & Pasture/ ) Authors  Tom Griggs, Extension Forage Specialist, West Virginia University, formerly with Utah State University West Virginia University, formerly with Utah State University  Steve Fransen, Extension Forage Specialist, Washington State University  Mylen Bohle, Area Extension Agronomist, Oregon State University

3 Hay Quality Sensory Evaluation Guidelines  Hay can vary widely in nutritional value for livestock  Assessment of quality depends on end-use application  Requirements for specific nutrient levels and sensory properties vary widely with livestock class and performance targets.

4 Hay Quality Sensory Evaluation Guidelines Laboratory analyses of hay for comparison purposes has been based on: +Fiber +Crude Protein +Minerals More recent approaches include determinations of digestibility of dry matter (DM) and fiber Energy is the most important nutrient in DM followed by protein, and then minerals.

5 Hay Quality Sensory Evaluation Guidelines  Fiber is a large component (35-70%) of hay DM and is only partially digestible to ruminants and horses  Fiber and digestibility are central to lab tests and ration formulation approaches because:  Ruminants and horses have fiber requirements for normal digestive functions and health  Knowledge of fiber digestibility (varies widely) improves predictions of forage energy availability

6 Laboratory Testing is Essential for Matching Up Forage / Livestock Needs  But it does not reveal important characteristics such as:  Bale Handling  Transport and Stacking  Anti-quality  Odor  Dust, weeds, weed seeds, impurities or injurious substances  Extent of leaf capture, attachment or pulverization  Texture, color and taste  Presence and dimensions of flower buds and seed heads

7 Package Functionality  How well can the hay be handled, transported, and stacked - which is a function of:  Bale shape  Bale density  Structural integrity

8 Odor  Odor can signal:  Heat damage (tobacco-like odors)  Mold from spoilage  Soil contamination  Excessive wetness

9 Maturity Stage  Maturity stage is directly related to:  Fiber  Digestible Energy  Crude Protein Levels  Fiber increases while digestible energy and protein decrease with advancing maturity

10 Foreign Material  Dusts, mold, soil and rocks  Weed seeds and plant parts (invasive noxious and poisonous weeds) (invasive noxious and poisonous weeds)  Old alfalfa crowns  Stubble  Non-crop species and materials such as barbed, sharp, abrasive, or other features that could harm animals or feed machinery

11 Texture and Condition  Ease of consumption by animals with discomfort or injury to mouth, face and eyes  Respiratory or other health disorders  Waste dues to sorting in feed bunks or losses onto soil  Leafiness describes leaf concentration in bale  Retention describes degree to which leaves remain attached to stems or flakes as bales are opened and fed  Shatter describes the extent of pulverization of baled leaves

12 Texture and Condition  Texture and condition can vary widely due to pre-baling differences in:  Crop canopy  Conditioning  Tractor wheel traffic  Mechanical handling operations  Baling at differing moisture levels

13 Color  Largely an appearance factor that is Not related to feeding value, although it can indicate:  Presence of pre-harvest diseases  Post harvest molds from excessively wet hay  Leaching of soluble sugars from rained on hay  High levels of leaf loss from raking, turning, and baling excessively dry material  Bleaching from the sun

14 USDA Quality Guidelines for Alfalfa and Alfalfa / Grass Hay Hay Grade ADF (%) NDF (%) RFV (%) TDN-100 (%) TDN-90 (%) CP (%) Supreme <27<34>185>62>55.9>22 Premium Good Fair Utility >35>44<130<56<50.5<16

15 USDA Grass Hay Quality Guidelines Quality DesignationCrude Protein (%) Premium  13 Good9-13 Fair5-9 Utility< 5

16 Lets Look at Some Bales of Hay


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