Presentation on theme: "Respondent Learning. Study conducted in the Soviet Union Bronshtein and Petrova (1967) Nonnutritive sucking habituated to repeated presentations."— Presentation transcript:
Study conducted in the Soviet Union Bronshtein and Petrova (1967) Nonnutritive sucking habituated to repeated presentations of each of a variety of auditory stimuli (e.g., a whistle, a harmonica) in neonates as well as in older infants
In a classic U.S. study, Bridger (1961) found habituation of both accelerated heart rate and startle response to auditory stimulation in neonates Jeffrey & Cohen (1971) found habituation in infants not only to auditory stimuli but to visual and olfactory stimuli as well
Habituation also demonstrated with fetuses Madison, Madison and Adubato (1986) applied vibrating stimuli to abdomens of women between 28 and 37 weeks pregnant After repeated presentations, fetal movements habituated
decrement in responding decrement must follow the repeated presentations of a particular stimulus Initial S-R relation must be a reflex decrement in responding must not be due to other processes (e.g., satiation, muscle fatigue)
Little Albert (11-months old) Watson and Rayner (1920) presented a friendly white rat and Albert played with it Then, loud noise (striking a metal rod with a hammer) was paired with presentation of the rat loud noise elicited crying After pairings, rat alone elicited crying Similar objects (e.g., cat, fur coat, Santa Claus mask) also elicited crying
Spelt (1958) paired a loud clap (UCS) with vibrotactile stimulation (the NS) with 7-9 months of gestation fetuses ◦ Eventually, the vibrotactile stimulus became a CS, eliciting fetal movements Lipsitt and Kaye (1964) paired presentation of a tone (the NS) with the insertion of a nipple in the mouth (UCS) of newborns 3-4 days old ◦ Eventually, the presentation of the tone alone (now a CS) elicited a sucking response.
Coyle, Arnold, Goldberg-Arnold, Rubin, and Hall (2000) measured baseline rates of sucking to either formula or water (formula was always preferred) Then placed nice odor (strawberry or vanilla) on formula nipple while infant sucked to establish the smell (NS)-food (UCS) relationship More…
To test that these odors were neutral stimuli, the nonpaired odor was then placed on a bottle nipple filled with water Consumption of water actually dropped by about one-third with this novel olfactory stimulus When the odor associated with the formula was placed on the water bottle, however, sucking and water consumption increased Thus, a previously neutral stimulus (odor) became a CS for these infants.
CER = conditioned emotional responding respondent learning may explain emotional responses by children boy who has been strongly yelled at for going outside without his pants may later blush (an emotional reflex) when he discovers that his pants are open (Bijou & Baer, 1978). Many instances in which we cry, become fearful, anxious, hungry, or become sexually aroused can be trained and reversed in terms of respondent learning
Mary Cover Jones (1924) reported the case of Peter, who exhibited a fear of rabbits She gave Peter candy to eat and then introduced a rabbit while Peter was eating the candy; led to elimination of Peter’s fear of rabbits. Procedure also involved presenting the CS (rabbit) gradually and repetitively, to not elicit the fear response At each session, the stimulus was moved closer and closer while Peter was eating, until the rabbit no longer trigger a negative emotion reaction.