What is matter? Anything that has mass and takes up space. What do we use to measure mass? –Balance –What are the units associated with mass? Grams Do these have matter? –Balloon Atmospheric pressure = mass Therefore, gas has mass and takes up space –Cube What are all of these made of? –Atoms
Not Matter What then is not matter? –Light It is Energy Doesn’t take up space and has no mass –Waves Light waves, sound waves, water waves –Heat/Cold Energy or the lack of energy
Atoms All matter is made of atoms To make a substance, these atoms are arranged in a certain way. The arrangement determines the properties of that substance. What kinds of properties are there?
Properties of Matter Shape Color Texture Odor Luster Transparency Density Size Volume Mass Melting Point Boiling Point Freezing Point Hardness Resistance Flamable Will every substance have all of these properties?
Properties of Matter Conductivity –Will it conduct electricity? Magnetism Solubility –Will it dissolve in water? Brittleness –Is the lead brittle? NO Insulator Are there more? Yes You should be able to list at least 7.
Property Is the absence of a property a property? The lack of it is just as good as having it. Ie – odor – lack of odor Luster – lack of luster
Determines? What determines the properties of matter? The arrangement of atoms
Scribble on a piece of paper What is graphite made of? –Layers of Carbon –Element #6 Graphite comes off in layers It is soft – that is why it comes off
Another Substance Made of Carbon What is another substance made of Carbon? Graphite = Carbon Coal = Carbon Charcoal = Carbon Diamond = Carbon
Cut Down Trees What happens when we cut down trees? Smolder trees? Left with Carbon Compact Carbon together and we get bricks.
The Difference… The difference between pencil graphite and diamond is the arrangement of atoms. Manmade diamonds are industrial made – used on drill bits, saws, etc
Bucky Ball Newly discovered molecular structure of carbon No uses for it yet
Phases Of Matter Definite Volume ShapeMotion of Particles Solid Liquid Gas Plasma
Solid Does a solid have a definite volume? Yes A definite shape? Yes Motion of particles? Yes
Phases Of Matter Definite Volume ShapeMotion of Particles SolidYes Vibrate Liquid Gas Plasma
Liquid Blue liquid in syringe Can I compress it? No Therefore definite volume Pouring liquid out Definite shape? No
Phases Of Matter Definite Volume ShapeMotion of Particles SolidYes Vibrate LiquidYesNoMoves Freely- Constant Contact Gas Plasma
Gas Balloon Push and squeeze it Will it move? Yes Therefore, no definite shape Put air in syringe Can I compress it? Yes Therefore, empty space in between particles and no definite volume
Phases Of Matter Definite Volume ShapeMotion of Particles SolidYes Vibrate LiquidYesNoMoves Freely- Constant Contact GasNo Random – Fast motion – Collisions not in constant contact Plasma
Examples of plasma Sun Stars Only exists at high temperatures Definite Volume? Yes Definite Shape? No Speed of molecules? Very Very Fast
Phases Of Matter Definite Volume ShapeMotion of Particles SolidYes Vibrate LiquidYesNoMoves Freely- Constant Contact GasNo Random – Fast motion – Collisions not in constant contact PlasmaYesNoVery Very Fast
Physical Change What is it? When matter undergoes a change in size, shape, or phase. Rip paper Twist paper You still have paper Blow up balloon – size change, shape change. Pop it – still a balloon Did it change chemically? No
More Examples Paper torn – Size and shape Balloons Blown up Size and shape Roads Size and shape Boiled Water Liquid water into gas
Chemical Change A new substance formed with new properties Paper Color, texture, odor, shape, volume, mass What is rust? Iron and Oxygen Limestone and Acid Gas (Bubbles)
Properties of a Compound The components of a compound do not retain their individual properties. Both sodium and chlorine are poisonous; their compound, table salt - NaCl - is absolutely essential to life. It takes a large amount of energy to separate the components of a compound.
Examples of a Compound Water - H 2 O Salt - NaCl Sugar - C 12 H 22 O 11
Properties of Mixtures Each of its components retains its characteristic properties. Its components are easily separated.