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Costs of Learning Learning: Alters Behavior, Functional Efficiency Takes Advantage of Predictability Within-Generation When Uncertainty Among Generations.

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Presentation on theme: "Costs of Learning Learning: Alters Behavior, Functional Efficiency Takes Advantage of Predictability Within-Generation When Uncertainty Among Generations."— Presentation transcript:

1 Costs of Learning Learning: Alters Behavior, Functional Efficiency Takes Advantage of Predictability Within-Generation When Uncertainty Among Generations Fitness Benefits Well Understood Plasticity, Match Behavior to Environment Vertebrates & Invertebrates Advances Survival & Reproduction

2 Social Learning (Cultural Transmission) Fitness Benefit: Predator Recognition Boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) Tadpoles: Naïve Woodfrog (Rana sylvatica) Tadpoles: Models Tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) Odor: Predator on tadpoles

3 Ferrari & Chivers (2008) Animal Behaviour 75:1921.

4 Costs of Learning Nature: Learning Capacities Common  Selectively Favored If Select for Increased Learning, Improves Rats, Bees & Several Dipterans If Learning Advantageous, Why Doesn’t Natural Selection Favor Increase? Selection for Intermediate Learning Capacities? Improvement Costly?

5 Costs of Learning Dichotomize Costs Constitutive (Genetic) Costs Capacity Costly, Even if Not Used Operating Costs Processes of Collecting, Storing & Recalling Information Costly

6 Constitutive Costs Develop & Maintain Sensory/Nervous Systems Neural Tissue Metabolically Expensive Pleiotropic Costs: Energy/Resource Allocation to Sensory/Nervous Functions Might Reduce Life-History Traits ~Independent of Use

7 Operating Costs Paid When Animal Learns Energy, Metabolic Resources Time, “Attention” Pleiotropic Costs to Other Traits

8 Operating Costs Well Studied, e.g.: Mice: Reduced Immunity Barnard et al Behav. Process. 72:74. Fruit Flies: Loss Larval Competitive Ability Mery & Kawecki Proc. R. Soc. B270:2465. Mery & Kawecki Science 308:1148. Fruit Flies: Reduced Fecundity Mery & Kawecki Anim. Behav. 68:589.

9 Drosophila Lines Artificially Selected for High Learning Low Learning (No Learning Selection) Quinine Aversion During Oviposition (1 Sex!) Selected Lines: Faster Learning & Longer Memory

10 Mery & Kawecki Anim. Behav. 68:589. Selected vs Unselected: Constitutive Costs In Selected Lines No Conditioning vs Repeated Conditioning: Operating Costs in High-Learning Line

11 Mery & Kawecki Anim. Behav. 68:589. Conditioning Cycles No Conditioning High-Learning Line Constitutive Cost Constitutive + Operating Costs: Lower Operating Costs Low-Learning Line Lower Constitutive Costs Lower Constitutive Costs

12 Mery & Kawecki Anim. Behav. 68:589. Correct Oviposition: High-Learning Line Advantaged, Given Chance to Learn Does Advantage Imply Operating Cost?

13 Mery & Kawecki Anim. Behav. 68:589. Egg Laying: Conditioning Affects High-Learning Only Reduced Fecundity in Later Cycles No Cost in High- Learning Without Conditioning

14 Burger et al Evolution 62:1294. Drosophila Lines Artificially Selected for High Learning Low Learning (No Learning Selection) Separate Lines Selected for Longevity

15 Burger et al Evolution 62:1294. Drosophila Lines Artificially Selected for High Learning Low Learning (No Learning Selection) Separate Lines Selected for Longevity: Focus on Constitutive Costs of Learning

16 Burger et al Evolution 62:1294. Selection for Learning Effective Costs?

17 Burger et al Evolution 62:1294. Cohort Survival: High-Learning vs Control Learning: Both Sexes Significantly Shorter Lifespan

18 Burger et al Evolution 62:1294. Select for Longevity: Works; Median Lifespan Extended By 18 Days Learning Impaired?

19 Burger et al Evolution 62:1294. Pleitropic Cost: Longevity Impairs Learning, 1 Hour Memory Task (Avoidance of Mechanical Shock Via Odor Association)


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