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Drinking Water Section Basic Ground Water Treatment Cindy Sek Sanitary Engineer 2 DPH - Drinking Water Section Compliance Regions - North.

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Presentation on theme: "Drinking Water Section Basic Ground Water Treatment Cindy Sek Sanitary Engineer 2 DPH - Drinking Water Section Compliance Regions - North."— Presentation transcript:

1 Drinking Water Section Basic Ground Water Treatment Cindy Sek Sanitary Engineer 2 DPH - Drinking Water Section Compliance Regions - North

2 Drinking Water Section Topics of Discussion  Why is water treatment used?  ANSI/NSF Standards  Considerations before installing treatment  Disinfection  Organics removal  Iron and manganese removal  Corrosion control treatment  Treatment systems in combination  General Water Treatment Guidelines  Classification of Water Treatment Plants

3 Drinking Water Section Why is Water Treatment Used?  To remove contaminants and achieve compliance with a Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) thereby reducing health risk  Disinfection to kill or inactivate total coliform and/or E.coli bacteria and associated microbial pathogens  Organics removal with Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)

4 Drinking Water Section Why is Water Treatment Used?  To achieve aesthetic water quality standards  Sediment filters to remove suspended particles  Ion exchange water softener  Iron and manganese filtration  Taste and odor control using Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)

5 Drinking Water Section Why is Water Treatment Used?  For corrosion control  Calcite filtration for pH adjustment  Chemical injection for pH adjustment  Orthophosphate for sequestering

6 Drinking Water Section ANSI/NSF Standard 60 & 61  All drinking water treatment chemicals and components must be certified to ANSI/NSF standards.  NSF/ANSI Standard 60: Drinking Water Treatment Chemicals - Health Effects is the nationally recognized health effects standard for chemicals which are used to treat drinking water.  NSF/ANSI Standard 61: Drinking Water System Components - Health Effects is the nationally recognized health effects standard for all devices, components and materials which contact drinking water.

7 Drinking Water Section Other ANSI/NSF Standards  NSF/ANSI Standard 42: Drinking Water Treatment Units - Aesthetic Effects  NSF/ANSI Standard 44: Cation Exchange Water Softeners  NSF/ANSI Standard 53: Drinking Water Treatment Units - Health Effects  NSF/ANSI Standard 55: Ultraviolet Microbiological Water Treatment Systems  NSF/ANSI Standard 58: Reverse Osmosis Drinking Water Treatment Systems  Visit for more informationwww.nsf.org

8 Drinking Water Section Considerations Before Installing Treatment  Type and concentration(s) of contaminant(s)  Treatment options  NSF Certification  Initial cost of installing treatment equipment and ongoing costs of maintenance, chemicals, and additional water quality testing  Available room to install treatment in existing pump house  Submittal to DPH for review and approval prior to installation per RCSA Section B102(d)(2)  Water treatment plant operator to maintain and operate the treatment system  Staff certified at the appropriate level  Contracting with a certified treatment plant operator

9 Drinking Water Section Chemical Disinfection  Chlorination is used to inactivate bacteria and/or viruses that may be introduced into the water system  Correct well violations and deficiencies first  Eliminate cross connections within system piping first  Use alternate source of supply  GWR requires maintaining 4-log virus treatment  Source with significant deficiency or fecal contamination  Exempt from GWR source water monitoring requirement  Existing treatment systems need to demonstrate that treatment meets this level  A CT value of about 6 is necessary to achieve this level  Routine compliance monitoring is required to ensure that treatment is effective and public health is protected.

10 Drinking Water Section Compliance Monitoring  Chlorine Compliance monitoring  >3,300 population – continuous monitoring at a location at least equivalent to 1 st customer.  <3,300 population – continuous monitoring at a location equivalent to 1 st customer or 1 grab sample/day at the time of peak hourly flow.

11 Drinking Water Section  under GWR Contact Time (CT) Calculator

12 Drinking Water Section Treatment EPA CT Value Table

13 Drinking Water Section Chemical Injection Systems 4-log treatment systems must have redundancy or backup equipment immediately available.

14 Drinking Water Section Chlorination Systems Advantages  Destroy bacteria, viruses, and other pathogenic microorganism, except Giardia and Cryptosporidium  Provide a barrier of protection throughout the water system when an adequate chlorine residual is maintained  Disinfectant residual can be monitored  Can be used as an oxidant to suspend metals in solution for better filtration treatment performance  Oxidizes hydrogen sulfide to reduce nuisance odor

15 Drinking Water Section Chlorination Systems Disadvantages  More maintenance  Chemical addition and disinfection by-products  Need to maintain adequate contact time for effective disinfection  Need to monitored on a daily basis  Requires a higher certified operator skill level  More space required for contact tank and treatment system  Mineral oxidation may necessitate the need to install filtration treatment if raw water has mineral content.  Iron and/or Manganese common in groundwater

16 Drinking Water Section Trivia Questions  The GWR requires what level of treatment at the entry point for effective virus inactivation / removal? 4-log  Can I continue to use my existing disinfection treatment if it does not meet 4-log virus inactivation / removal? Yes, however please note assessment or triggered source water monitoring may be required.

17 Drinking Water Section Ultraviolet Disinfection  May be considered for approval as a primary disinfection treatment if UV treatment guidelines are met  Source of supply is groundwater  Bacteria (total coliform) is documented to be coming from the groundwater source (not in distribution system)  UV unit meets ANSI/NSF 55 Standards  Raw water meets prerequisite water quality data  Iron and Manganese, color, turbidity  Suspended solid, hardness, hydrogen sulfide

18 Drinking Water Section Ultraviolet Disinfection Advantages  No chemicals  Instantaneous bacteria inactivation  Closed system  No disinfection by-products  Low maintenance  Can be installed in a relatively small space if pre-treatment is not necessary  Relatively low initial and maintenance costs compared to chlorination systems

19 Drinking Water Section Ultraviolet Disinfection Disadvantages  No disinfectant residual.  Currently, no known single low pressure UV units will provide 4-log inactivation/removal of viruses.  Require for assessment monitoring per GWR.  Will only be effective if the bacteria source is entering the water system prior to the UV unit.  Pretreatment may be necessary for raw water with moderate to high mineral content.  May require units to be installed in parallel if water system cannot be shut down to allow for UV maintenance or replacement.

20 Drinking Water Section Ultraviolet Disinfection

21 Drinking Water Section Ultraviolet Disinfection

22 Drinking Water Section Trivia Question  What are some of the raw water minerals to be concerned of when considering a UV treatment system?

23 Drinking Water Section Trivia Question  What are some of the raw water minerals to be concerned of when considering a UV treatment system? ParameterMaximum Limit Color15 Iron0.3 mg/L Manganese0.05 mg/L Hardness120 mg/L Hydrogen SulfideNon-Detectable Suspended Solids10 mg/L Turbidity1.0 NTU

24 Drinking Water Section Granular Activated Carbon (GAC)  Absorbs Organic Chemicals  gasoline, benzene, toluene  DDT, PCB, etc.  Controls taste & odor  Chlorine smell  Sulfur odor (rotten egg smell)  Typically 2 units are installed in series for organic removal

25 Drinking Water Section Multiple GAC units for VOC removal

26 Drinking Water Section Aeration (Air Stripping) Multi-Staged Bubble System Lowry Deep Bubble Air Stripper,  VOC  Radon  TTHM  Hydrogen Sulfide  Iron Oxidation  pH Adjustment

27 Drinking Water Section Iron/Manganese Removal  Filtration is typically combined with pre-oxidation  Media: Manganese Greensand, Birm, Multimedia  Regeneration / Oxidation: Potassium permanganate  Oxidation: Chlorine, Air injection  Manganese is typically oxidized at a higher pH therefore pH adjustment may be required  Phosphate – sequestering iron  Water softeners  Best for Ferrous Iron < 5 mg/L

28 Drinking Water Section Iron/Manganese Removal Continuous Regeneration National Environmental Training Association, Inc., Field Guide, III-3, 1999

29 Drinking Water Section Iron/Manganese Removal Intermittent Regeneration National Environmental Training Association, Inc.,Field Guide, III-3, 1999

30 Drinking Water Section Multiple Greensand Filters with GAC

31 Drinking Water Section Trivia Question  What is the purpose of air injection or aeration in the treatment process?  Oxidation  VOC removal  Radon removal  pH adjustment

32 Drinking Water Section Water Softeners  Removal of hardness  Calcium and/or Magnesium  Removal of iron and manganese  Regenerate with sodium chloride or potassium chloride  If sodium levels are already elevated, potassium chloride may be preferable  Sodium notification level is 28 mg/L

33 Drinking Water Section Ion Exchange Softening National Environmental Training Association, Inc.,Field Guide, III-6, 1999

34 Drinking Water Section Cartridge Sediment Filters  Remove silt, sediment, and other suspended matter  Use as pre-filter for other treatment processes  Sediment filter should be changed on a regular basis  Spare filters should be kept in their original wrappings  Add a tablespoon of bleach to filter housing after filter replacement

35 Drinking Water Section Trivia Questions  What is one of the functions of a water softener in a treatment process? -- Hardness removal -- Iron and Manganese removal  Should a cartridge filter be used for bacteria removal? No

36 Drinking Water Section Corrosion Control  pH adjustment  Calcite Filter  Chemical injection  Introduction of corrosion control inhibitors  Calcite filters - protect scaling in pipes  Phosphate chemical injection - applies a protective layer on the pipes to help prevent corrosion

37 Drinking Water Section Corrosion Control  Evaluate source Water Quality Parameters (WQP) results  WQP – pH, alkalinity, calcium, conductivity, phosphate, temperature  Based on results, determine the most effective treatment system  After installation of treatment, check WQP and saturation index at entry point to confirm treatment effectiveness

38 Drinking Water Section pH Adjustment Calcite Filters  A.K.A. acid neutralizers or limestone contactors  Raise pH (typically not beyond 7.5)  Add hardness (calcium carbonate) and alkalinity which can be beneficial for corrosion control  Replace filter media periodically (i.e months)  Minimum weekly monitoring of pH level is required to be taken, recorded, and retained under RCSA Section B102(e)(7)(N)

39 Drinking Water Section

40 Chemical Injection  pH adjustment with potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate (soda ash), or hydroxide products  Allow a wider range of pH level to be achieved  More hazardous than a calcite filter  Potential for chemical overfeed if chemical injection safety controls are not installed  Recommend injection paced proportionate to flow  Sequestering with phosphate  Daily monitoring of pH level or biweekly monitoring of phosphate level is required to be taken, recorded, and retained under RCSA Section B102(e)(7)(N)

41 Drinking Water Section

42 Trivia Question  What is the monitoring requirement for the pH adjustment process? -- Calcite Filters - at least weekly pH readings -- Chemical injection – Daily pH readings The readings must be recorded on the Treatment Effluent Log and submitted to by the 9 th day of the following

43 Drinking Water Section Treatment Systems in Combination  Calcite followed by a water softener  Used to remove iron and manganese  Calcite raises pH and facilitates manganese removal with the water softener  Calcite adds hardness and water softener reduces hardness  Water softener followed by UV Treatment  Water softener reduces hardness, iron and manganese  Bacteria passing through UV unit is inactivated and does not “hide” under larger minerals  Many other possible combinations

44 Drinking Water Section Neutralizer + Water softener + sediment filter + UV

45 Drinking Water Section Where does the backwash go?  BACK WASH DISCHARGE MUST BE AIR-GAPPED  Not in the septic system (definition of domestic sewage in RCSA Section B103 excludes treatment backwash)  Dedicated on-site water treatment disposal system or sanitary sewer ( Draft DEEP General Permit for the Discharge of Low Flow Water Treatment Wastewater )  Must meet separating distance to well  Must be at least 10 ft from existing septic system  DEEP General Permit may be required  Backwash discharge > 500 GPD

46 Drinking Water Section

47 What is wrong?

48 Drinking Water Section What is wrong? No air gap for BW discharges & storage tank drain No air gap for BW discharges

49 Drinking Water Section Water Treatment Equipment Chemical Feed Equipment  All chemical solution tanks (day tanks) should be equipped with tank level indicators, continuous agitators, vents to atmosphere, overlapping covers, and placed in containment basins  Proper mixing and safety instructions should be available for maintenance personnel  All chemical injection pumps must be controlled by an in-line flow sensor to prevent accidental overfeed in the case of a no-flow condition  Chemical feed rates should be proportional to flow  Injection pumps should be of the positive displacement type  Chemical injection pumps are installed as near as practical to the injection point  A separate chemical injection pump shall be used for each chemical applied

50 Drinking Water Section Water Treatment Equipment Chemical Feed Equipment (cont.)  Chemical injection pumps may be automatically or manually controlled, with automatic controls being designed so as to allow override by manual controls  Install two chemical injection pumps  Spare parts shall be available for chemical injection pumps to replace parts which are subject to wear and damage  Make-up water line to the chemical solution tank must have proper backflow prevention device installed  Hoses used to provide make-up water should never be left in the chemical solution tank after replenishing even if a vacuum breaker is installed on the hose bibb

51 Drinking Water Section Trivia Questions  Is a backflow prevention device needed for the make up water line? YES, if no air gap exists.  What NSF Standard should be applied to drinking water chemicals? NSF Standard 60

52 Drinking Water Section Classification of Water Treatment Plants and Small Water Systems

53 Drinking Water Section Small Water Systems  If the CPWS or NTNC serves less than 1,000 persons and either has no treatment or a treatment unit process that does not require any chemical treatment, process adjustment or media regeneration by an operator then the system is classified as a “SMALL WATER SYSTEM”

54 Drinking Water Section “Passive Treatment” - Small Water System  Treatment unit process that does not require any chemical treatment, process adjustment or media regeneration by an operator  UV Light  Calcite filter – media is replaced off site by licensed professional  Cartridge filter (whole house filter, sediment filter)  Exchange Softener – no backwash & media is regenerated off site  Granular Activated Carbon (taste & odor control)

55 Drinking Water Section Water Treatment Plant Classification Form Points Assigned for:  Population Served  Water Supply Source  Chemical Treatment/Addition Process  Coagulation & Flocculation Process  Clarification/Sedimentation Process  Filtration Process  Other Treatment Processes  Special Processes  Residuals Disposal  Facility Characteristics - Instrumentation

56 Drinking Water Section Water Treatment Plant Classification Form  Add up all the points and determine which level treatment plant applies TREATMENT PLANT LEVEL  Class I 30 points or less  Class II points  Class III points  Class IV 76 points or greater  Available on the Drinking Water Section website:

57 Drinking Water Section Treatment Plant Classification Activity  XYZ community public water system utilizes two wells to serve 200 people.  Well withdrawal rate  8 gpm each (8,640 gpd each)  Raw water quality  elevated iron, manganese, color & turbidity, 5.8 pH  Treatment Processes  Chlorination, pH adjustment with KOH, greensand filters with potassium permanganate (KMnO4) for regeneration and intermittent backwash discharge to on-site dedicated disposal system

58 Drinking Water Section

59 This includes the greensand filter (5 pts) and potassium permanganate (10 pts)

60 Drinking Water Section Total 53 points Class II treatment plant Requires a Class II treatment plant operator

61 Drinking Water Section Contact Information  Drinking Water Section 410 Capitol Ave, MS# 51-WAT P.O. Box Hartford, CT Phone: Emergency Phone: Fax:


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