formation of urine occurs by a series of three processes that take place in successive parts of the nephron filtration reabsorption secretion
formation of urine
wastes - urine The remaining wastes, now called urine are transported out through the collecting tubule to an area known as the renal pelvis (a collecting area) where the urine then passes into the ureter
urinalysis physical, chemical, microscopic examination of urine color pale yellow (straw) light yellow yellow green-yellow (olive) red-yellow red red-brown brown-black black milky turbidity (cloudiness) Normally, freshly voided urine is clear and transparent. It may be cloudy due to crystals and cells will centrifuge out; bacteria will not.
urinalysis physical, chemical, microscopic examination of urine odor Strong odors of urine need to be identified because many can give clues to the origin of diseases. specific gravity (density) The refractometer measures the refractive index of the total soluble solids. When a beam of light passes through one substance into another, the beam is refracted so that it travels in another direction. The extent to which the beam is refracted depends on the concentration of the total soluble solids.
urinalysis - urine odor Ammoniacal-Occurs especially during decomposition or urine on standing ("alkaline fermentation") or retention within urinary bladder; may be related to some bacterial infections. Effects of drugs and diet-Many ingested substances will give the urine a distinct odor as ingested asparagus giving urine its characteristic odor. Fecal-Due to contamination with feces or E. coli; often related to bladder-GI tract fistula. Fetid or Putrid-May be caused by diseases of the GU tract. Decomposition of urine containing cystine or pus will have the odor of rotten eggs (H2S). Fruity or Sweetish-Usually due to acetone in diabetic acidosis, starvation or dieting. Urinoid or Faintly Aromatic; Normal Attributed to volatile organic acids most marked in "concentrated" urine specimens.
control of nephron Nephron control is hormonal, with water reabsorption controlled by ADH from the posterior pituitary and sodium chloride reabsorption controlled by aldosterone from the adrenal medulla. Sodium chloride transport is monitored by the juxtaglomerular complex. The arteriolar cells secrete renin, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to secret aldosterone. Aldosterone increases the absorption of sodium chloride and the excretion of potassium.
a few disorders of the excretory system Obstructive disorders kidney stones kidney cancer Renal failure - (kidney failure) UTIs - urinary tract infections, often caused by gram-negative bacteria cystitis-bladder infections urethritis-inflammation of the urethra pyelonephritis- inflammation of the kidneys
kidney stones Cause - metabolic disorder involving calcium, proteins and uric acid the build up of these substances into a large deposit (stone) Symptoms - irritation of the urinary tract, bleeding in the urinary tract, in cases with large stones there can be extreme pain as the stone(s) try to pass through the tract Treatments - removal by surgical means, breakdown of stones by either physical (ultrasound) or chemical means, dietary changes to reduce chances of stones
renal (kidney) failure Causes - infections, trauma, diabetes, tumors Symptoms - build up of toxins in the blood stream (urea), jaundice, fatigue Treatments - dialysis, drug therapy, transplants
Chronic Renal Failure Treatment
bladder infections Causes - infection of the urinary tract Symptoms - burning sensation in the flanks that can move down from the middle of the back towards the front of the groin, burning sensation while urinating treatments - antibiotics
Lungs and Respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 H 2 O + CO 2 Respiration H 2 O + CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 Photosynthesis
The Respiratory System
Pulmonary ventilation –Air moves in and out of lungs –Continuous replacement of gases in alveoli (air sacs) External respiration –Gas exchange between blood and air at alveoli –O2 (oxygen) in air diffuses into blood –CO2 (carbon dioxide) in blood diffuses into air Transport of respiratory gases –Between the lungs and the cells of the body –Performed by the cardiovascular system –Blood is the transporting fluid Internal respiration –Gas exchange in capillaries between blood and tissue cells –O2 in blood diffuses into tissues –CO2 waste in tissues diffuses into blood
Alveoli surrounded by fine elastic fibers Alveoli interconnect via alveolar pores Alveolar macrophages – free floating “dust cells” Note type I and type II cells and joint membrane
Breathing = “pulmonary ventilation” –Pulmonary means related to the lungs Two phases –Inspiration (inhalation) – air in –Expiration (exhalation) – air out Mechanical forces cause the movement of air –Gases always flow from higher pressure to lower –For air to enter the thorax, the pressure of the air in it has to be lower than atmospheric pressure Making the volume of the thorax larger means the air inside it is under less pressure (the air has more space for as many gas particles, therefore it is under less pressure) The diaphragm and intercostal muscles accomplish this
Gas Laws P1 V1 = P2 V2 T1 T2 36
Liver Function Weighs 3 pounds filters the blood from the digestive tract detoxifies chemicals and metabolizes drugs. makes proteins for blood clotting
cirrhosis of the liver Causes - excessive intake of alcohol or other disease such as hepatitis Symptoms - elevated temp., weight loss, indigestion Treatments - drug therapy, blood transfusion, transplants