Hydrogen Sulfide & low levels of Oxygen 4 employees injured/killed: Attempting RESCUE Emergency response prevented more deaths Issues: Poor construction Language/Culture barrier NO CONFINED SPACES PROGRAM
Large enough to enter into and perform assigned work Limited means of entry/exit NOT designed for continuous periods of occupancy
1. Do you have to use your hands to enter or exit the space?
2. Do you have to contort your body in any way to get into or out of the space?
3. Is your entry into or exit from the space slowed down or impeded by physical obstructions (such as pipes, ductwork, holes in the floor, etc.)?
4. Would you be forced to enter or exit in a posture that might slow self-rescue (escape) or make rescue more difficult? Floating Roof Tank
Does not mean the space must be perpetually occupied Could be occupied continuously under normal operating conditions Factors to consider: 1. Designed to ever hold dense material (water, sludge, sand) 2. Lacking heat, light, & ventilation 3. Too short to stand-up in 4. Too disgusting for you to put your desk in and work a whole day
Non-permit Required: DOES NOT contain hazardous conditions capable of causing death or serious physical harm Permit-Required: DOES contain hazardous conditions capable of causing death or serious physical harm Must have ONE of the following: ▪ Hazardous atmosphere ▪ Engulfing materials ▪ Inwardly converging walls ▪ Other serious hazards
Categorizing the Space * Space large enough to enter AND * Limited or Restricted entry or exit AND * Not designed for continuous worker occupancy NO Not a Confined Space YES Confined Space Hazardous Atmosphere Engulfment Hazard Configuration Hazard Any other recognized serious hazard Permit Required Confined Space Permit Required Confined Space YES NO OR Non- Permit Required Confined Space Non- Permit Required Confined Space
Atmospheric Physical Other hazards
o Oxygen Deficient or Oxygen Rich
o Airborne Combustible Dust
o Flammable Gas, Vapor, or Mist
o Atmospheric conditions
Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health Poses an immediate or delayed threat to life, OR… Causes irreversible adverse health effects, OR… Interferes with ability to escape unaided from a permit space
Short Term Exposure Limit The maximum concentration of a chemical to which workers may be exposed continuously Up to 15 minutes without danger to health and safety
Permissible Exposure Limit The time-weighted average threshold limit a person working an 8 hour shift can be exposed to a chemical without suffering ill effects
Containment What is the MAIN danger? What does it look/smell like? Explosive or Flammable?Industry Examples Argon(Ar) Displaces oxygen May accumulate at bottom Colorless, odorlessNOUsed when welding inside confined space. Carbon Dioxide (CO₂) Displaces oxygen May accumulate at bottom Toxic Colorless, odorlessNOFermentation process in wine storage and fermentation tanks. Carbon Monoxide (CO) Toxic — asphyxiant (causing suffocation) Colorless, odorless (NO WARNING) YESProduced by gas or propane. Chlorine (CI₂) Toxic — lung and eye irritant May accumulate at bottom Greenish yellow color; sharp pungent odor NOCould leak into confined space from nearby tanks or piping containing chlorine; piping inflows. Gasoline Vapours Fire and explosion May accumulate at bottom Colorless; sweet odor YES VERY!Use of gasoline inside a confined space; vapors from spills of gasoline nearby. Hydrogen Sulfide (H₂S) Extremely flammable Very toxic — causes lung failure May accumulate at bottom Colorless; rotten egg odor* YESRotting matter has bacteria generating H2S. In pulp and paper mills, sewers, treatment plants. Methane (CH₄) Fire and explosion May accumulate at top Colorless, odorless (NO WARNING) YES VERY!Rotting matter will generate methane. In sewers, storage tanks. Nitrogen (N₂) Displaces oxygenColorless, odorless (NO WARNING) NOInerting a vessel to displace the oxygen to prevent corrosion. In boilers, storage tanks. Nitrogen Dioxide (NO₂) Toxic — severe lung irritant May accumulate at bottom Reddish brown; pungent odor NOProduced by internal combustion engines, tools, and equipment that run on gasoline, propane, or diesel. Sulfur Dioxide (SO₂) Toxic — severe lung irritant May accumulate at bottom Colorless; rotten, suffocating odor NONearby tanks or piping containing sulfur dioxide that could leak; piping inflows. Oxygen (O₂) Low levels — asphyxiant High levels — causes spontaneous combustion, explosion Colorless, odorlessSupports combustionBacteria, rusting, and internal combustion engines will use up oxygen; other gases can replace oxygen. In ballast tanks, boilers, double hulls, utility vaults, septic tanks, vats, manure pits, wine storage and fermentation tanks, reaction vessels, storage tanks, fuel tanks, tank cars, tank trucks, kilns. Welding inside any confined space may decrease the level of oxygen.
Falling Tripping Moving parts Engulfment Temperature extremes Tapering Water
Configuration Hazards Fire Hazards Hot Work Electrical hazards Exposed or frayed wires Electric shock Mechanical hazards Lockout /Tagout
1. Complete the Permit 2. Perform pre-entry atmospheric and physical hazard monitoring Gas Monitoring 3. Complete necessary safety controls Ventilation LOTO PPE Etc.
6. Pre-entry briefing Discuss with everyone: ▪ What is on the permit – hazards, tests ▪ Who is on the permit – roles ▪ What does mean to everyone – responsibilities 7. Perform entry & work Keep trained attendant in contact with worker 8. Perform continuous atmospheric tests Use the four gas meter
9. Exit the confined space 10. Debrief Review the results of continuous air monitoring 11. Verify completion THIRTY MINUTES – if Hot Work was completed
Space to be entered Purpose of entry Date of entry and duration Authorized entrants: Use a roster or tracking system Attendants Entry Supervisor – signature required
Hazards – list & control measures Acceptable entry conditions Results of initial testing – atmospheric Names/contact information for rescue or emergency services Communication procedures Necessary equipment Other important information
ENTRY PERMIT: PERMIT VALID FOR 8 HOURS ONLY. ALL COPIES OF PERMIT WILL REMAIN AT JOB SITE UNTIL JOB IS COMPLETED DATE: SITE LOCATION and DESCRIPTION ______________________________ PURPOSE OF ENTRY__________________________________________ SUPERVISOR(S) in charge of crews ________________________________ Phone numbers of Crew:_____________________________-____________ ______________________________________________________________ COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES ________________________________ RESCUE PROCEDURES (PHONE NUMBERS AT BOTTOM) BOLD DENOTES MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS TO BE COMPLETED AND REVIEWED PRIOR TO ENTRY* REQUIREMENTS COMPLETED DATE : TIME : Lock Out/De-energize Ventilation ____ ____ Secure Area (Post and Flag) ____ ____ Breathing Apparatus ____ ____ Respirator(s) (Air Purifying) ______________ Standby Safety Personnel ____ ____ Phone number____________________ Full Body Harness w/"D" ring ____ ____ Emergency Escape Retrieval Equip ____ ____ Fire Extinguishers ____ ____ Lighting (Explosive Proof) ____ ____ Protective Clothing ____ ____ Hot Work Permit ____ ____
**RECORD CONTINUOUS MONITORING RESULTS EVERY 2 HOURS CONTINUOUS MONITORING** Permissible _________________________________ TEST(S) TO BE TAKEN Entry Level PERCENT OF OXYGEN 19.5% to 23.5% ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ LOWER FLAMMABLE LIMIT Under 10% ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ CARBON MONOXIDE +35 PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Aromatic Hydrocarbon + 1 PPM * 5PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Hydrogen Cyanide (Skin) * 4PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Hydrogen Sulfide +10 PPM *15PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Sulfur Dioxide + 2 PPM * 5PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ Ammonia *35PPM ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ * Short-term exposure limit: Employee can work in the area up to 15 minutes. + 8 hr. Time Weighted Avg.: Employee can work in area 8 hrs (longer with appropriate respiratory protection). REMARKS:_____________________________________________________________ GAS TESTER NAME INSTRUMENT(S) MODEL SERIAL &/OR & CHECK # USED &/OR TYPE UNIT # ________________ _______________ ___________ ____________ ________________ _______________ ___________ ____________ SAFETY STANDBY PERSON IS REQUIRED FOR ALL CONFINED SPACE WORK SAFETY STANDBY CHECK # CONFINED CONFINED PERSON(S) SPACE CHECK # SPACE CHECK # ENTRANT(S) ENTRANT(S) ______________ _______ __________ _______ SUPERVISOR AUTHORIZING - ALL CONDITIONS SATISFIED___________ DEPARTMENT/PHONE# AMBULANCE # 911 FIRE# 911
Self-rescue – get out when alarm sounds Non-entry rescue – harness is used Entry rescue – rescue team There are three types of rescue:
Hazard Training – ▪ LOTO ▪ Hot Work PPE – ▪ Respirator ▪ Harness Role – ▪ Attendant ▪ Rescue Teams: ▪ Annual training ▪ General First Aid ▪ CPR Affected Employees:
Check with your county – Designated Confined Space Rescue Teams ▪ Remember: response time may vary & not all fire companies are trained Eliminate as many hazards as possible Prevent entry Reduce to non-permit required
The OSHA/Mushroom Alliance meets monthly at the AMI office in Avondale For more information, any of the presenters You can also check out the OSHA section of AMI’s Web site at Click on the OSHA link