It’s all about survival! Evolutionary perspective… –part of phenotype –acted upon by natural selection lead to greater fitness? lead to greater survival? lead to greater reproductive success?
Animal Behavior How does the behavior increase survival? Use of Pheromones Cooperation Agonistic behavior Habituation Imprinting
Animal Behavior PROXIMATE CAUSATION – “How?” –What is the stimulus for the response? ULTIMATE CAUSATION – “Why?” –What benefit does performing this behavior have? HOW does day length influence breeding? WHY do cranes breed in spring? HOW does day length influence breeding? WHY do cranes breed in spring?
When a female cat comes into heat, she urinates more frequently and in a large number of places. Male cats from the neighborhood congregate near urine deposits and fight with each other. Practice AP Test Questions
Which of the following is a proximate cause of this behavior of increased urination? A.It announces to the males that she is in heat. B.Female cats that did this in the past attracted more males. C.It is a result of hormonal changes associated with her reproductive cycle. D.The female cat saw other cats doing it, and it worked for them. E.In the past, when she did it, more males were attracted.
Which of the following would be an ultimate cause of the male cats' response to the female's urinating behavior? A.The males have learned to recognize the specific odor of the urine of a female in heat. B.By smelling the odor, various neurons in the males' brains are stimulated. C.Male cats respond to the odor because it is a means of locating females in heat. D.Male cats' hormones are triggered by the odor released by the female. E.The odor serves as a releaser for the instinctive behavior of the males.
Nature vs. Nurture Some behavior stems from genetics –May have gene that controls: Release of a hormone which triggers a behavior Direction of migration Whether a fruit fly knows its mating dance Some behavior comes from the environment –Cross-fostering: allow a parent of one species to raise offspring of another and see how behavior changes
Animal Behavior connects AP Biology topics. ANIMAL BEHAVIOR Evolution Cell Communication Cellular Energetics Genetics Biochemistry Ecology Cell Structure Animal Form and Function
Make a Concept Map connecting: Proximate CauseUltimate Cause Fixed Action Pattern ImprintingTrial and ErrorKinesis TaxisPheromonesLandmarks Cognitive MapCognition Agonistic Behavior AltruismCritical PeriodHabituation