2“Alternative” Milk Parmalat Shelf-stable milk: Can last for 5-6 months unopened without refrigerationDiscussion: Would you drink milk out of a room-temperature, square, quart-size box?
3Overflowing Sensations Our world is a symphony of colors, sounds, odors, tastes, etc.Marketers contribute to the commotionAdvertisements, product packages, radio & TV commercials, billboardsNBC’s Fear Factor
4Sensation & Perception Immediate response of our sensory receptors……eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers……to basic stimuli……such as light, color, sound, odor, and texture
5Sensation & Perception (Cont’d) Process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpretedAdding meaning to raw sensationsFigure 2.1
6Advertisements Appeal to Our Sensory Systems This ad for a luxury car emphasizes the contribution made by all of our senses to the evaluation of a driving experience.
7Sensory Systems - Vision Marketers rely heavily on visual elements in advertising, store design, and packaging.Meanings are communicated on the visual channel through a product’s color, size, and styling.Colors may influence our emotions more directly.Arousal and stimulated appetite (e.g. red)Relaxation (e.g. blue)
8Vision Color Color provokes emotion Reactions to color are biological & culturalColor in marketing is serious business!
9Perceptions of Color This ad campaign by the San Francisco Ballet uses colorperceptions to get urbansophisticates to addclassical dance to theirpacked entertainmentitineraries.
10Perceptions of ColorAs this Dutch detergent ad demonstrates (Flowery orange fades without Dreft), vivid colors are often an attractive product feature.
11Discussion QuestionFirst Heinz gave us “Blastin’ Green” ketchup in a squeeze bottle. Now they have introduced “Funky Purple” ketchup.What sensory perception is Heinz trying to appeal to? Do you think this product will be successful? Why or why not?
13Smell in AdvertisingThis ad pokes fun at the proliferation of scented ads. Ah, the scent of sweat.
14Hearing Many aspects of sound affect people’s feelings and behaviors Phonemes of brands = unique product meanings“i” brands are “lighter” than “a” brandsEffect of Muzak: Muzak uses a system it calls “stimulus progression” to increase the normally slower tempo of workers during midmorning and midafternoon time slots.MUZAK.COM
15Applications of Touch Perceptions Kansai engineering: A philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements.Mazda Miata designers discovered that making the stick shift (shown on the right) exactly 9.5 cm long conveys the optimal feeling of sportiness and control.
16Tactile Quality Associations Tactile Oppositions in FabricsPerceptionMaleFemaleHigh classWoolSilkFineLow classDenimCottonHeavyLightCoarseTable 2.1
17Taste “Flavor houses” (e.g., Alpha M.O.S.) Develop new concoctions for consumer palatesCultural changes determine desirable tastes
18This ad targets which senses? This Finnish ad emphasizes the sensual reasons to visit the city of Helsinki.
19Exposure A stimulus comes within range of someone’s sensory receptors We can concentrate, ignore, or completely miss stimuli
20Your AssignmentSelect three to five advertisements (in any format) that target different sensory perceptions.Present those advertisements in 5 to 10-minutes.
21Sensory Thresholds Psychophysics Absolute threshold Dog whistle Billboard with too small print
22Sensory Thresholds (Cont’d) Differential thresholdJ.n.d.Weber’s LawDiscussion: Many studies have shown that our sensory detection abilities decline as we grow older.Discuss the implications of the absolute threshold for marketers attempting to appeal to the elderly.
23Subliminal Perception It is believed that many ads are designed to be perceived unconsciously (below threshold of recognition)Subliminal TechniquesEmbedsSubliminal auditory perception
24Subliminal Perception (Cont’d) Most researchers believe that subliminal techniques are not of much use in marketingDiscussion: Assuming that some forms of subliminal persuasion may have the desired effect of influencing consumers, do you think the use of these techniques is ethical? Explain your answer.
25Subliminal Messages in Ads Critics of subliminal persuasion often focus on ambiguous shapes in drinks that supposedly spell out words like S E X as evidence for the use of this technique. This Pepsi ad, while hardly subliminal, gently borrows this message format.
26AttentionThe extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulusCompetition for our attention3,500 ad info pieces per dayMultitaskMarketers need to break through the clutterMicrosoft’s butterfly decals on sidewalksMini Cooper’s fake robots ad
27Attention and Advertising Nike tries to cut through the clutter by spotlighting maimed athletes instead of handsome models.
28Stimulus Selection Factors Size:The size of the stimulus itself in contrast to the competition helps to determine if it will command attention.Color:Color is a powerful way to draw attention to a product.Position:Stimuli that are present in places we’re more likely to look stand a better chance of being noticed.Novelty:Stimuli that appear in unexpected ways or places tend to grab our attention.
29Perceptual Selection (Cont’d) Stimulus Selection FactorsWeber’s LawDifferences in size, color, position, & noveltyInterpretation: assigned meaning to stimuliSchema leads to stimulus evaluation
30Discussion QuestionWhat technique does this Australian ad rely on to get your attention?Does the technique enhance or detract from the advertisement of the actual product?
31Stimulus Organization A stimulus will be interpreted based on its assumed relationship with other events, sensations, or images.Closure Principle:People tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete.Principle of Similarity:Consumers tend to group together objects that share the same physical characteristics.Figure-ground Principle:One part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (the ground).
32Gestalt PrincipleThis Swedish ad relies upon gestalt perceptual principles to insure that the perceiver organizes a lot of separate images into a familiar image.
33Principle of ClosureThis Land Rover ad illustrates the use of the principle of closure, in which people participate in the ad by mentally filling in the gaps in the sentence.
34Figure-ground Principle This billboard for Wrangler jeans makes creative use of the figure-ground principle.
35SemioticsCorrespondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaningConsumer products = social identitiesAdvertising as culture/consumption dictionary
37Office Space & “Rio Red” stapler: SWINGLINE.COM Semiotics (Cont’d)Signs are related to objects in 3 ways:IconIndexSymbolHyperrealityMarlboro cigarettes = American frontier spirit“Heidiland” in SwitzerlandOffice Space & “Rio Red” stapler: SWINGLINE.COM
38Perceptual Positioning Positioning StrategyA fundamental part of a company’s marketing efforts as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer’s interpretation of its meaning.Many dimensions can establish a brand’s position in the marketplace:• Lifestyle• Competitors• Price Leadership• Occasions• Attributes• Users• Product Class• Quality