Presentation on theme: "Perception Chapter 2. 2-2 “Alternative” Milk Parmalat –Shelf-stable milk: Can last for 5-6 months unopened without refrigeration Discussion: Would you."— Presentation transcript:
2-2 “Alternative” Milk Parmalat –Shelf-stable milk: Can last for 5-6 months unopened without refrigeration Discussion: Would you drink milk out of a room-temperature, square, quart-size box?
2-3 Overflowing Sensations Our world is a symphony of colors, sounds, odors, tastes, etc. –Marketers contribute to the commotion –Advertisements, product packages, radio & TV commercials, billboards –NBC’s Fear Factor
2-4 Sensation & Perception Sensation –Immediate response of our sensory receptors… …eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers… –…to basic stimuli… …such as light, color, sound, odor, and texture
2-5 Sensation & Perception (Cont’d) Perception –Process by which sensations are selected, organized, and interpreted Adding meaning to raw sensations Figure 2.1
2-6 Advertisements Appeal to Our Sensory Systems This ad for a luxury car emphasizes the contribution made by all of our senses to the evaluation of a driving experience.
2-7 Sensory Systems - Vision Marketers rely heavily on visual elements in advertising, store design, and packaging. Meanings are communicated on the visual channel through a product’s color, size, and styling. Colors may influence our emotions more directly. –Arousal and stimulated appetite (e.g. red) –Relaxation (e.g. blue)
2-8 Vision Color –Color provokes emotion –Reactions to color are biological & cultural –Color in marketing is serious business!
2-9 Perceptions of Color This ad campaign by the San Francisco Ballet uses color perceptions to get urban sophisticates to add classical dance to their packed entertainment itineraries.
2-10 Perceptions of Color As this Dutch detergent ad demonstrates (Flowery orange fades without Dreft), vivid colors are often an attractive product feature.
2-11 First Heinz gave us “Blastin’ Green” ketchup in a squeeze bottle. Now they have introduced “Funky Purple” ketchup. What sensory perception is Heinz trying to appeal to? Do you think this product will be successful? Why or why not? Discussion Question
2-13 Smell in Advertising This ad pokes fun at the proliferation of scented ads. Ah, the scent of sweat.
2-14 Hearing Many aspects of sound affect people’s feelings and behaviors –Phonemes of brands = unique product meanings “i” brands are “lighter” than “a” brands –Effect of Muzak: Muzak uses a system it calls “stimulus progression” to increase the normally slower tempo of workers during midmorning and midafternoon time slots. MUZAK.COM
2-15 Applications of Touch Perceptions Kansai engineering: A philosophy that translates customers’ feelings into design elements. Mazda Miata designers discovered that making the stick shift (shown on the right) exactly 9.5 cm long conveys the optimal feeling of sportiness and control.
2-16 Tactile Quality Associations Table 2.1 Tactile Oppositions in Fabrics PerceptionMaleFemale High classWoolSilkFine Low classDenimCotton HeavyLightCoarse
2-17 Taste “Flavor houses” (e.g., Alpha M.O.S.) –Develop new concoctions for consumer palates Cultural changes determine desirable tastes
2-18 This ad targets which senses? This Finnish ad emphasizes the sensual reasons to visit the city of Helsinki.
2-19 Exposure A stimulus comes within range of someone’s sensory receptors –We can concentrate, ignore, or completely miss stimuli
2-20 Your Assignment Select three to five advertisements (in any format) that target different sensory perceptions. Present those advertisements in 5 to 10- minutes.
2-21 Sensory Thresholds Psychophysics Absolute threshold –Dog whistle –Billboard with too small print
2-22 Sensory Thresholds (Cont’d) Differential threshold –J.n.d. –Weber’s Law Discussion: Many studies have shown that our sensory detection abilities decline as we grow older. –Discuss the implications of the absolute threshold for marketers attempting to appeal to the elderly.
2-23 Subliminal Perception It is believed that many ads are designed to be perceived unconsciously (below threshold of recognition) Subliminal Techniques –Embeds –Subliminal auditory perception
2-24 Subliminal Perception (Cont’d) Most researchers believe that subliminal techniques are not of much use in marketing Discussion: Assuming that some forms of subliminal persuasion may have the desired effect of influencing consumers, do you think the use of these techniques is ethical? Explain your answer.
2-25 Subliminal Messages in Ads Critics of subliminal persuasion often focus on ambiguous shapes in drinks that supposedly spell out words like S E X as evidence for the use of this technique. This Pepsi ad, while hardly subliminal, gently borrows this message format.
2-26 Attention The extent to which processing activity is devoted to a particular stimulus –Competition for our attention 3,500 ad info pieces per day Multitask –Marketers need to break through the clutter Microsoft’s butterfly decals on sidewalks Mini Cooper’s fake robots ad
2-27 Attention and Advertising Nike tries to cut through the clutter by spotlighting maimed athletes instead of handsome models.
2-28 Stimulus Selection Factors Size: –The size of the stimulus itself in contrast to the competition helps to determine if it will command attention. Color: –Color is a powerful way to draw attention to a product. Position: –Stimuli that are present in places we ’ re more likely to look stand a better chance of being noticed. Novelty: –Stimuli that appear in unexpected ways or places tend to grab our attention.
2-29 Perceptual Selection (Cont’d) Stimulus Selection Factors –Weber’s Law Differences in size, color, position, & novelty –Interpretation: assigned meaning to stimuli Schema leads to stimulus evaluation
2-30 What technique does this Australian ad rely on to get your attention? Does the technique enhance or detract from the advertisement of the actual product? Discussion Question
2-31 Stimulus Organization A stimulus will be interpreted based on its assumed relationship with other events, sensations, or images. Closure Principle: –People tend to perceive an incomplete picture as complete. Principle of Similarity: –Consumers tend to group together objects that share the same physical characteristics. Figure-ground Principle: –One part of a stimulus will dominate (the figure) and other parts will recede into the background (the ground).
2-32 Gestalt Principle This Swedish ad relies upon gestalt perceptual principles to insure that the perceiver organizes a lot of separate images into a familiar image.
2-33 Principle of Closure This Land Rover ad illustrates the use of the principle of closure, in which people participate in the ad by mentally filling in the gaps in the sentence.
2-34 Figure-ground Principle This billboard for Wrangler jeans makes creative use of the figure-ground principle.
2-35 Semiotics Correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning Consumer products = social identities –Advertising as culture/consumption dictionary
2-37 Semiotics (Cont’d) Signs are related to objects in 3 ways: –Icon –Index –Symbol Hyperreality –Marlboro cigarettes = American frontier spirit –“Heidiland” in Switzerland Office Space & “Rio Red” stapler: SWINGLINE.COM
2-38 Perceptual Positioning Positioning Strategy –A fundamental part of a company ’ s marketing efforts as it uses elements of the marketing mix to influence the consumer ’ s interpretation of its meaning. –Many dimensions can establish a brand ’ s position in the marketplace: Lifestyle Competitors Price Leadership Occasions Attributes Users Product Class Quality