Presentation on theme: "Sensory Evaluation In the Culinary Classroom"— Presentation transcript:
1 Sensory Evaluation In the Culinary Classroom By:Dr. Aubrey CoffeeClemson University
2 Development of Sensory Testing HistoricalEvaluation of goods, water, weapons, etc. by humansThe rise of trading graders professional tastersSystematic “sensory” analysis based on:Wartime effortsVictorian times where important royalty had people to taste the food before they would eat to make sure it was safe.
3 Development of Sensory Testing HistoricalDevelopment of triangle test (Scandinavia)Food Science Dept at UC Davis (1965)Sensory methods developed to serve economic interestsWorth or acceptability of commodityEvaluates alternate courses optimizes value for money
4 Development of Sensory Testing Principle uses of sensory techniques:Quality controlProduct developmentResearch
6 Sensory EvaluationThe assessment of all the qualities of a food item as perceived by the human sensesNot merely food “tasting” it can involve describing food color as well as texture, flavor, aftertaste, aroma, tactile response, and even auditory responseSometimes sensory analysis is used interchangeably with sensory evaluation.
7 Sensory Evaluation IFT Definition of Sensory Evaluation: The scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret human reactions to those characteristics of foods and beverages as they are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing
8 Development of Sensory Testing Primary function of sensory testing:To conduct valid and reliable tests,which provide data on which sounddecision can be made.
9 Sensory Evaluation The role of sensory evaluation is to…. provide valid and reliable information to R&D, production, and marketing for management to make sound business decisions about the perceived sensory properties of products.
10 Sensory Evaluation Sensory Evaluation as a Scientific Method Incorporates the following:Identification of a problemThe statement of a hypothesisAn experimental strategy to investigate the problemStrategy accomplished through data collection and analysis and a conclusion is reached that answers the original question
11 Sensory Evaluation Sensory Evaluation as a Scientific Method The conclusion either accepts or rejects the hypothesis according to the results of the study
12 Sensory Evaluation as a Quantitative Science When numerical data are collected to establish specific relationship between product characteristics and human perception.Human responses to stimuli are quantified.
13 Classification of Test Methods Classified according to their primary purpose and most valid useCritical to match test method to objectives of projectThree classes are most commonly usedAffectiveDiscriminationDescriptiveEach have a different goal and selection criteria for panelist
14 Classification of Test Methods Discrimination Panelist are screened for sensory acuity, oriented to test method, sometimes trainedDescriptive Panelist are screened for sensory acuity and motivation, are highly trainedAffective Panelist are screened for product use, are untrained
15 Sensory Evaluation-Food Service Industry Formal EvaluationR&D at Corporate Offices (McDonalds, Maggie Moo’s Ice Cream, Wendy’s, Denny’sInformal EvaluationWait staff sampling daily specials; Customers-specials of the day; chefs- developing new menu items (trial/error)
22 Trigeminal perception Impression of FlavorFlavorMouth feelTrigeminal perceptionTasteOdorThe overall impression of flavor is a combination of taste, odor, mouthfeel, and trigeminal perception
23 The Flavor Pyramid Concept by Dr. Kilcast TRIGEMINAL STIMULIExcitementVariety & InterestODOR / VOLATILESBasic NotesTASTESweet, sour, salty, bitter, umamiThe Flavor Pyramid Concept by Dr. Kilcast
24 The Flavor Pyramid by Steven Kahn Similar in concept with Dr. KilcastDescribes the development of flavor differentlyAt the base or foundation of his pyramid is Emotion, followed by Appearance, Aroma, Texture, Sensation, and at the top, Basic Tastes.
25 The Foundation is Emotions ChildhoodTravelFamilyEventsCulturePastExperiencesCheck in changing picture
26 Flavor is Enhanced by Visual Appearance ColorContrastSizeHeightPlate Coverage
27 Aromatic Aromas Acidic Esters Spicy Lactonic Sulfury Sweet Woody/SmokeyTerpenicGo with spices here
28 The Impact of Texture Crunchy Crispy Soft Mushy Smooth Creamy Baked product here
29 Taste the Feel—Sensations CoolingNumbingFullnessTingleBurnBitePungencyAstringency
30 The Tip of the Pyramid – Basic Taste SourSweetBitterSaltyUmami (Savory)
32 How do you incorporate sensory evaluation into your curriculum? As a course offeringAn introductory or first level course focusing on all aspects of sensory evaluationAs a component in an existing courseIncorporating elements of sensory evaluation within an basic culinary courseUtilize ingredient companies educational initiatives
33 Hands-on Activities As a component in an existing course: Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
34 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory Scope (Introduction)Information on the topicBasic tastes typesHistory on umamiWhat is it?Where can it be found?How difficult is it to identify?Characteristics
35 To recognize and evaluate umami taste qualities Basic Tastes – Umami LaboratoryTest Objective(s)Why is the laboratory being conducted?What do you expect the students to learn?Objective for this laboratory:To recognize and evaluate umami taste qualities
36 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory Materials and Methods for the LaboratoryWhat supplies are needed – can be time intensiveInclude every step in the process – makes it easier the next time it is conductedNote adjustment or changes immediately after labInclude directions for the studentsIf demonstrating, include also
37 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory Key Teaching PointsList here the teaching points for the labsJust the “cake”, no “icing”As students are completing the lab, these would be the comments to emphasize the objectives stated in the beginning.
38 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory ReferencesInclude all of your sourcesWhen using web-based sources, include address and date accessed – information do changeAllows for students to complete further researchGives credit to researcher and authors
39 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory Supplemental HandoutsTables and forms for students data collectionAdditional information to reinforce topic or objectives
41 The Elements of Butter Laboratory Hands-on ActivitiesAs a course offering:The Elements of Butter Laboratory
42 Elements of Butter Laboratory Research and DevelopmentNew Product DevelopmentIngredient Substitution.
43 Elements of Butter Laboratory Fresh ButterMild, sweet, clean, pleasant flavor and a delicate aromaAppetite seems to “craves more of the productReminiscent of the best “butter popcorn”.
44 Elements of Butter Laboratory Butter Buds® 8xEnzyme modification technologyHighly concentrated flavor in convenient powder form – 400 x the flavor strength1# of Butter Buds® 8x = flavor strength of ~ 8# butterTypical usage level: 1.0%-4.0% total batch weight
45 Elements of Butter Laboratory DiacetylGreenish yellow liquid compound (CH3CO)2Occurs as a natural byproduct of fermentationFound in several dairy products (butter, cheese, milk), as well as bread, coffee, and rumComponent of artificial butter flavoring
47 References:Kaun, S The multi-sensory flavor experience. Flavor & the Menu. Tigard, Oregon. PgBuilding on the flavor pyramid. Flavor & the Menu. Tigard, Oregon. PgFlavor by Latitude. Flavor & the Menu. Tigard, Oregon. PgKikkoman International, Inc. 50 California Street, Suite 3600, San Francisco, Ca Website:McGee, H When science sniffs around the kitchen. New York Times. Accessed December 11, 2006 atMeilgaard, MM., Civille, GV., Carr, BT Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 3rd Edition. CRC Press. New YorkMurano, P.S Understanding food science and technology. Wadsworth / Thompson Learning. Belmont, CAPowell, J The way we eat: file of dreams. New York Times. Accessed December 11, 2006 at