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Sensory Evaluation In the Culinary Classroom

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1 Sensory Evaluation In the Culinary Classroom
By: Dr. Aubrey Coffee Clemson University

2 Development of Sensory Testing
Historical Evaluation of goods, water, weapons, etc. by humans The rise of trading  graders professional tasters Systematic “sensory” analysis based on: Wartime efforts Victorian times where important royalty had people to taste the food before they would eat to make sure it was safe.

3 Development of Sensory Testing
Historical Development of triangle test (Scandinavia) Food Science Dept at UC Davis (1965) Sensory methods developed to serve economic interests Worth or acceptability of commodity Evaluates alternate courses optimizes value for money

4 Development of Sensory Testing
Principle uses of sensory techniques: Quality control Product development Research

5 Sensory Evaluation – Formal Process

6 Sensory Evaluation The assessment of all the qualities of a food item as perceived by the human senses Not merely food “tasting” it can involve describing food color as well as texture, flavor, aftertaste, aroma, tactile response, and even auditory response Sometimes sensory analysis is used interchangeably with sensory evaluation.

7 Sensory Evaluation IFT Definition of Sensory Evaluation:
The scientific discipline used to evoke, measure, analyze, and interpret human reactions to those characteristics of foods and beverages as they are perceived by the senses of sight, smell, taste, touch, and hearing

8 Development of Sensory Testing
Primary function of sensory testing: To conduct valid and reliable tests, which provide data on which sound decision can be made.

9 Sensory Evaluation The role of sensory evaluation is to….
provide valid and reliable information to R&D, production, and marketing for management to make sound business decisions about the perceived sensory properties of products.

10 Sensory Evaluation Sensory Evaluation as a Scientific Method
Incorporates the following: Identification of a problem The statement of a hypothesis An experimental strategy to investigate the problem Strategy accomplished through data collection and analysis and a conclusion is reached that answers the original question

11 Sensory Evaluation Sensory Evaluation as a Scientific Method
The conclusion either accepts or rejects the hypothesis according to the results of the study

12 Sensory Evaluation as a Quantitative Science
When numerical data are collected to establish specific relationship between product characteristics and human perception. Human responses to stimuli are quantified.

13 Classification of Test Methods
Classified according to their primary purpose and most valid use Critical to match test method to objectives of project Three classes are most commonly used Affective Discrimination Descriptive Each have a different goal and selection criteria for panelist

14 Classification of Test Methods
Discrimination Panelist are screened for sensory acuity, oriented to test method, sometimes trained Descriptive Panelist are screened for sensory acuity and motivation, are highly trained Affective Panelist are screened for product use, are untrained

15 Sensory Evaluation-Food Service Industry
Formal Evaluation R&D at Corporate Offices (McDonalds, Maggie Moo’s Ice Cream, Wendy’s, Denny’s Informal Evaluation Wait staff sampling daily specials; Customers-specials of the day; chefs- developing new menu items (trial/error)

16 The Way We Eat: File of Dreams

17 Sensory Attributes We tend to perceive the attributes of a food item in the following order….. Appearance Odor / aroma / fragrance Consistency and texture Flavor (aromatics, chemical feeling, taste)

18 There are at least three steps in the process of sensory perception:
Sensory Evaluation There are at least three steps in the process of sensory perception:

19 Role of Your Sensory Organs:

20 Sensory Organs

21 Sensory Organs

22 Trigeminal perception
Impression of Flavor Flavor Mouth feel Trigeminal perception Taste Odor The overall impression of flavor is a combination of taste, odor, mouthfeel, and trigeminal perception

23 The Flavor Pyramid Concept by Dr. Kilcast
TRIGEMINAL STIMULI Excitement Variety & Interest ODOR / VOLATILES Basic Notes TASTE Sweet, sour, salty, bitter, umami The Flavor Pyramid Concept by Dr. Kilcast

24 The Flavor Pyramid by Steven Kahn
Similar in concept with Dr. Kilcast Describes the development of flavor differently At the base or foundation of his pyramid is Emotion, followed by Appearance, Aroma, Texture, Sensation, and at the top, Basic Tastes.

25 The Foundation is Emotions
Childhood Travel Family Events Culture Past Experiences Check in changing picture

26 Flavor is Enhanced by Visual Appearance
Color Contrast Size Height Plate Coverage

27 Aromatic Aromas Acidic Esters Spicy Lactonic Sulfury Sweet
Woody/Smokey Terpenic Go with spices here

28 The Impact of Texture Crunchy Crispy Soft Mushy Smooth Creamy
Baked product here

29 Taste the Feel—Sensations
Cooling Numbing Fullness Tingle Burn Bite Pungency Astringency

30 The Tip of the Pyramid – Basic Taste
Sour Sweet Bitter Salty Umami (Savory)

31 When Science Sniffs Around The Kitchen

32 How do you incorporate sensory evaluation into your curriculum?
As a course offering An introductory or first level course focusing on all aspects of sensory evaluation As a component in an existing course Incorporating elements of sensory evaluation within an basic culinary course Utilize ingredient companies educational initiatives

33 Hands-on Activities As a component in an existing course:
Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory

34 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
Scope (Introduction) Information on the topic Basic tastes types History on umami What is it? Where can it be found? How difficult is it to identify? Characteristics

35 To recognize and evaluate umami taste qualities
Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory Test Objective(s) Why is the laboratory being conducted? What do you expect the students to learn? Objective for this laboratory: To recognize and evaluate umami taste qualities

36 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
Materials and Methods for the Laboratory What supplies are needed – can be time intensive Include every step in the process – makes it easier the next time it is conducted Note adjustment or changes immediately after lab Include directions for the students If demonstrating, include also

37 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
Key Teaching Points List here the teaching points for the labs Just the “cake”, no “icing” As students are completing the lab, these would be the comments to emphasize the objectives stated in the beginning.

38 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
References Include all of your sources When using web-based sources, include address and date accessed – information do change Allows for students to complete further research Gives credit to researcher and authors

39 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
Supplemental Handouts Tables and forms for students data collection Additional information to reinforce topic or objectives

40 Basic Tastes – Umami Laboratory
Brewed Lite Soy Sauce Brewed Soy Sauce Non-brewed Soy Sauce Chocolate Sauce w/o Soy Sauce Soy-Infused Chocolate Sauce Tasting Grid

41 The Elements of Butter Laboratory
Hands-on Activities As a course offering: The Elements of Butter Laboratory

42 Elements of Butter Laboratory
Research and Development New Product Development Ingredient Substitution .

43 Elements of Butter Laboratory
Fresh Butter Mild, sweet, clean, pleasant flavor and a delicate aroma Appetite seems to “craves more of the product Reminiscent of the best “butter popcorn”.

44 Elements of Butter Laboratory
Butter Buds® 8x Enzyme modification technology Highly concentrated flavor in convenient powder form – 400 x the flavor strength 1# of Butter Buds® 8x = flavor strength of ~ 8# butter Typical usage level: 1.0%-4.0% total batch weight

45 Elements of Butter Laboratory
Diacetyl Greenish yellow liquid compound (CH3CO)2 Occurs as a natural byproduct of fermentation Found in several dairy products (butter, cheese, milk), as well as bread, coffee, and rum Component of artificial butter flavoring

46 Thank You ! Questions?

47 References: Kaun, S The multi-sensory flavor experience. Flavor & the Menu. Tigard, Oregon. Pg Building on the flavor pyramid. Flavor & the Menu. Tigard, Oregon. Pg Flavor by Latitude. Flavor & the Menu. Tigard, Oregon. Pg Kikkoman International, Inc. 50 California Street, Suite 3600, San Francisco, Ca Website: McGee, H When science sniffs around the kitchen. New York Times. Accessed December 11, 2006 at Meilgaard, MM., Civille, GV., Carr, BT Sensory Evaluation Techniques. 3rd Edition. CRC Press. New York Murano, P.S Understanding food science and technology. Wadsworth / Thompson Learning. Belmont, CA Powell, J The way we eat: file of dreams. New York Times. Accessed December 11, 2006 at

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