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Senses Sense: ability to perceive stimuli Sensation:

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Presentation on theme: "Senses Sense: ability to perceive stimuli Sensation:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Senses Sense: ability to perceive stimuli Sensation:
conscious awareness of stimuli received by sensory neurons Sensory receptors: sensory nerve endings that respond to stimuli by developing action potentials

2 Types of Senses General senses: - receptors over large part of body
- somatic provide info. about body and env’t - visceral provide info. about internal organs, pain, pressure - touch, pressure, pain, temp., and itch Special senses: smell, taste, sight, hearing, and balance

3 Types of Receptors Mechanoreceptors: - detect movement
- Ex. touch, pressure, vibration Chemoreceptors: - detect chemicals - Ex. Odors Photoreceptors: detect light

4 Thermoreceptors: detect temp. changes Nociceptors: detect pain

5 Types of Touch Receptors
Merkel’s disk: detect light touch and pressure Hair follicle receptors: detect light touch Meissner corpuscle: - deep in epidermis - localizing tactile sensations

6 Ruffini corpuscle: - deep tactile receptors - detects continuous pressure in skin Pacinian corpuscle: - deepest receptors - associated with tendons and joints - detect deep pressure, vibration, position

7 Figure 9.1

8 Pain What is it? unpleasant perceptual and emotional experience

9 Types of Pain Localized: - sharp, pricking, cutting pain
- rapid action potential Diffuse: - burning, aching pain - slower action potentials

10 Pain Control Local anesthesia:
- action potentials suppressed from pain receptors in local areas - chemicals are injected near sensory nerve General anesthesia: - loss of consciousness - chemicals affect reticular formation

11 Referred Pain What is it?
- originates in a region that is not source of pain stimulus - felt when internal organs are damaged or inflamed - sensory neurons from superficial area and neurons of source pain converge onto same ascending neurons of spinal cord


13 Olfaction What is it? - sense of smell - occurs in response to
odorants - receptors are located in nasal cavity and hard palate - we can detected 10,000 different smells

14 How does olfaction work?
Nasal cavity contains a thin film of mucous where odors become dissolved. Olfactory neurons are located in mucous. Dendrites of olfactory neurons are enlarged and contain cilia. 3. Dendrites pick up odor, depolarize, and carry odor to axons in olfactory bulb (cranial nerve I). 4. Frontal and temporal lobes process odor.

15 Figure 9.3b

16 Taste Taste buds: - sensory structures that detect taste
- located on papillae on tongue, hard palate, throat Inside each taste bud are 40 taste cells Each taste cell has taste hairs that extend into taste pores

17 Figure 9.4

18 How does taste work? Taste buds pick up taste and send it to taste cells. Taste cells send taste to taste hairs. Taste hairs contain receptors that initiate an action potential which is carried to parietal lobe. Brain processes taste.

19 Types of Tastes Sweet Sour Salty Bitter Umami
Certain taste buds are more sensitive to certain tastes. Taste is also linked to smell.

20 Vision Accessory Structures Eyebrow: - protects from sweat
- shade from sun Eyelid/Eyelashes: - protects from foreign objects - lubricates by blinking


22 Conjunctiva: thin membrane that covers inner surface of eyelid Lacrimal apparatus: produces tears Extrinsic eye muscles: help move eyeball


24 Figure 9.8


26 Anatomy of Eye Hollow, fluid filled sphere
Composed of 3 layers (tunics) Divided into chambers

27 Fibrous Tunic Outermost layer Sclera: - firm, white outer part Cornea:
- helps maintain eye shape, provides attachment sites, protects internal structures Cornea: - transparent structure that covers iris and pupil - allows light to enter and focuses light

28 Vascular Tunic Middle layer Contains blood supply Choroid:
- black part (melanin) - delivers O2 and nutrients to retina Ciliary body: helps hold lens in place Suspensory ligaments: help hold lens in place

29 Lens: - flexible disk - focuses light onto retina Iris: - colored part - surrounds and regulates pupil Pupil: - regulates amount of light entering - lots of light = constricted - little light = dilated


31 Figure 9.10

32 Nervous Tunic Innermost tunic Retina: - covers posterior 5/6 of eye
- contains 2 layers Pigmented retina: - outer layer - keeps light from reflecting back in eye

33 Sensory retina: - contains photoreceptors (rods and cones) - contains interneurons Rods: - photoreceptor sensitive to light - 20 times more rods than cones - can function in dim light Cones: - photoreceptor provide color vision - 3 types blue, green, red

34 Figure 9.12b

35 Figure 9.12c

36 Rhodopsin: photosensitive pigment in rod cells Opsin: colorless protein in rhodopsin Retinal: - yellow pigment in rhodopsin - requires vitamin A

37 Effects of Light on Rhodopsin
Light strikes rod cell Retinal changes shape Opsin changes shape Retinal dissociates from opsin Change rhodopsin shape stimulates response in rod cell which results in vision Retinal detaches from opsin ATP required to reattach retinal to opsin and return rhodopsin to original shape

38 Figure 9.13

39 Retina Structures Continued
Rods and cones synapse with bipolar cells of sensory retina Horizontal cells of retina modify output of rods and cones Bipolar and horizontal cells synapse with ganglion cells Ganglion cells axons’ converge to form optic nerve

40 Nervous Tunic (Retina)
Innermost layer 2 parts of retina: sensory and pigmented Keeps light from reflecting back into eye Rods: photoreceptors that detect amount light Cones: - photoreceptors that detect colors - 3 types: red, blue, green

41 Macula: small spot near center of retina Fovea centralis: - center of macula - where light is focused when looking directly at an object - only cones - ability to discriminate fine images

42 Optic disk: - white spot medial to macula - blood vessels enter eye and spread over retina - axons exit as optic nerve - no photoreceptors - called blindspot


44 Chambers of Eye Anterior chamber: - located between cornea and lens
- filled with aqueous humor (watery) - aqueous humor helps maintain pressure, refracts light, and provide nutrients to inner surface of eye Posterior chamber: - located behind anterior chamber - contains aqueous humor

45 Vitreous chamber: - located in retina region - filled with vitreous humor: jelly-like substance - vitreous humor helps maintain pressure, holds lens and retina in place, refracts light

46 Functions of Eye Light Refraction Bending of light Focal point:
- point where light rays converge - occurs anterior to retina - object is inverted

47 Focusing Images on Retina
Accommodation: - lens becomes less rounded and image can be focused on retina - enables eye to focus on images closer than 20 feet


49 Neuronal Pathway for Vision
Optic nerve: leaves eye and exits orbit through optic foramen to enter cranial cavity Optic chiasm: where 2 optic nerves connect Optic tracts: route of ganglion axons

50 Figure 9.16b

51 Eye Defects Myopia: - nearsightedness - image is in front of retina
Hyperopia: - farsightedness - image is behind retina Presbyopia: - lens becomes less elastic - reading glasses required

52 Clinical Focus 9A

53 Astigmatism: - irregular curvature of lens - glasses or contacts required to correct Colorblindness: - absence or deficient cones - primarily in males Glaucoma: - decreased pressure in eye - can lead to blindness

54 Clinical Focus 9B

55 Hearing and Balance External (Outer) Ear
Extends from outside of head to eardrum Auricle: fleshy part on outside External auditory meatus: canal that leads to eardrum Tympanic membrane: - eardrum - thin membrane that separates external and middle ear

56 Middle Ear Air filled chamber Malleus (hammer): bone attached to tympanic membrane Incus (anvil): bone that connects malleus to stapes Stapes (stirrup): bone located at base of oval window

57 Oval window: separates middle and inner ear Eustachian or auditory tube: - opens into pharynx - equalizes air pressure between outside air and middle ear


59 Inner Ear Set of fluid filled chambers Bony labyrinth: - tunnels filled with fluid - 3 regions: cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals Membranous labyrinth: - inside bony labyrinth - filled with endolymph

60 Endolymph: clear fluid in membranous labyrinth Perilymph: fluid between membranous and bony labyrinth Cochlea: - snail-shell shaped structure - where hearing takes place

61 Scala vestibuli: - in cochlea - filled with perilymph Scala tympani: Cochlea duct: - filled with endolymph

62 Spiral organ: - in cochlear duct - contains hair cells Tectorial membrane: - in cochlea - vibrates against hair cells Hair cells: attached to sensory neurons that when bent produce an action potential

63 Vestibular membrane: wall of membranous labyrinth that lines scala vestibuli Basilar membrane: wall of membranous labyrinth that lines scala tympani


65 How do we hear? Sound travels in waves through air and is funneled into ear by auricle. Auricle through external auditory meatus to tympanic membrane. Tympanic membrane vibrates and sound is amplified by malleus, incus, stapes which transmit sound to oval window. Oval window produces waves in perilymph of cochlea.

66 5. Vibrations of perilymph cause vestibular membrane and endolymph to vibrate.
6. Endolymph cause displacement of basilar membrane. 7. Movement of basilar membrane is detected by hair hairs in spiral organ. 8. Hair cells become bent and cause action potential is created.


68 Balance (Equilibrium)
Static equilibrium: - associated with vestibule - evaluates position of head relative to gravity Dynamic equilibrium: - associated with semicircular canals - evaluates changes in direction and rate of head movement

69 Vestibule: - inner ear - contains utricle and saccule Maculae: - specialized patches of epithelium in utricle and saccule surround by endolymph - contain hair cells Otoliths: - gelatinous substance that moves in response to gravity - attached to hair cell microvilli which initiate action potentials



72 Semicircular canals: - dynamic equil. - sense movement if any direction Ampulla: base of semicircular canal Crista ampullaris: in ampulla Cupula: - gelatinous mass - contains microvilli - float that is displaced by endolymph movement



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