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Pollinators Wind Water Insects Birds Rodents Bats Self-pollinating.

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Presentation on theme: "Pollinators Wind Water Insects Birds Rodents Bats Self-pollinating."— Presentation transcript:

1 Pollinators Wind Water Insects Birds Rodents Bats Self-pollinating

2 Pollinators World Crop Pollination –73% Bees- 5% beetles –19% flies- 4% birds –6.5 % bats- 5% wasps –4% butterflies and moths Source:

3 Floral Adaptations Wind Pollination –Small or absent perianth –Color: Green or Brown –No odor or nectar –LOTS of pollen (typical allergy source) –Examples: grass, ragweed, corn, maple, pine D. Hautau Northern Red Oak

4 Floral Adaptations Water Pollination –Flower parts waxy –No odor or nectar –Only a little pollen that floats –Example: Eel grass (Vallisneria americana)

5 Floral Adaptations Bird Pollination –Flower parts tubular or handing; deep spurs –Color: Red, yellow, orange –Faint odor; lots of hidden nectar –Sticky pollen –Example: Trumpet vine, Fuschia D. Hautau

6 Floral Adaptations Bat Pollination –Flower parts short tubes open at night –Color: White, cream, dark red –Musty odor; Tons of nectar and pollen –Mice and other mammals may also pollinate

7 Floral Adaptations Beetle Pollination –Flat or bowl shaped flower –Color: drab brown or white –Strong fermenty odor –Lots of pollen (beetle food) –Examples: Skunk Cabbage

8 Floral Adaptations Fly Pollination –Sex organs hidden and booby-trapped –Color: red-brown to green or purple –Rotting meat odor –Sticky pollen –Examples: Carrion flower (Stapelia)

9 Floral Adaptations Butterfly Pollination –Regular, flat flowers; some with tubes –Color: red, orange, yellow, blue –Weak odor but lots of nectar –Sticky pollen –Example: Milkweed G. Falkenhagen 2003

10 Floral Adaptations Moth Pollination –Hanging flower; tubed; opens at night –Color: white or cream –Strongly sweet odor; lots of nectar –Sticky pollen –Examples: Jasmine, Jimsonweed, Evening Primrose G. Falkenhagen 2003

11 Floral Adaptations Bee Pollination –Bilateral flowers with landing platform; hairs for gripping and UV nectar guidesnectar –Color: white, blue, yellow –Sweet odor & lots of nectar –Lots of pollen

12 Bee Pollinating Services 90 Crops in the U.S. rely on bee pollination Bees usually forage within 500m of hive but can go over 4 miles if needed Bees average 20-40mg of nectar/load Pollen Sources – protein for bees Nectar Sources – carbs for bees

13 Bee Pollinating Services Nectar Sources – carbs for bees –Sucrose is preferred sugar or sucrose mix –Abundance and Sugar concentration important Pear nectar = 10% Legume nectar = 40%+ –Amount varies by day, time, environment

14 Bee Pollinating Services Nectar Sources – carbs for bees –Produced by special glands (nectaries) Vary in structure and position –Sample Plants Basswood- Apple- White clover Alfalfa- Dandelion- Willow Alsike Clover- Goldenrod- Tulip tree

15 Bee Pollinating Services Pollen Sources – protein for bees –Plant Pollen sources Aster family Cat-tail Dandelion Elm Rose family

16 Bee Pollinating Services Pollen Sources – protein for bees –Primarily collected in spring to feed brood –Hairs on bee’s body stick to pollen then bee ‘combs’ pollen with leg and sticks into basket –Pollen pellets weigh up to 20mg

17 Bee Pollinating Services D. Hautau Video on Pollination Importance: 9 minutes

18 Bibliography Campus Nature Web. University at Albany. 1996. “Fact Sheet: Pollinator Diversity.” Caron, Dewey M. 1999. Honey Bee Biology and beekeeping. Wicwas Press, LLC. Cp. 20. Dunne, Niall. 2005. “The Nature of Nectar.” Plants & Gardens News 20:2. 2005su_naturenectar.html 2005su_naturenectar.html Falkenhagen, George. 2003. Alpena Community College. Personal Photos. Raven, Peter H., et al. 2008. Biology, 8 th ed. McGraw Hill Higher Education. New York, N.Y. Tew, Dr. James E. Accessed 7/26/2007. Ohio State University Extension Fact Sheet: HYG-2168-98. “Some Ohio Nectar and Pollen Producing Plants. Other images are personal images of D. Hautau, Alpena Community College, 2007.

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