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Table of Contents What is OdoWatch? Phases of an OdoWatch Project Project Examples Frequently Asked Questions Getting Started Contact Information
Electronic Nose (E-Nose) Weather Tower Central Control Unit What is OdoWatch?
OdoWatch™ - An Impact Monitoring System Real-time odor dispersion modeling Visual display of a color-coded plume overlaid on an area map The ability to distinguish between odors created by their sources and those from off-site sources Internet access for the site operator Remote diagnostic and troubleshooting
The E-Nose Network Wireless continuous odor monitoring
Inside The E-Nose Sensor matrix is composed of… 16 MOS (Metal-oxide semiconductor) sensors16 MOS (Metal-oxide semiconductor) sensors Specially designed stainless steel measurement chamberSpecially designed stainless steel measurement chamber Air sample pumpAir sample pump Cooling fanCooling fan Wireless RF communicationsWireless RF communications Key concepts of MOS sensor: Wide spectrum of responses (non- specific) Sensitive Durable Easy to replace Inexpensive
The system uses a weather station installed on the site to measure: Temperature Humidity Atmospheric pressure Solar radiation (used to determine mixing height and stability class) Wind direction Wind speed The Weather Station
Data Display & Analysis (Software Screenshots) Sensor Responses Door Monitoring (special case)
Using the system… Complaint Management Real-time identification of main problem sources Alarm for thresholds Odor-Impact forecasting Operational planning Enables operators to be proactive – not reactive Detection of malfunctions of the odor abatement systems
An OdoWatch Project Study Installation Support
Odor Sampling Olfactometric Analysis Odor Patterns E-nose Training Perception threshold (o.u./m3) Sensor matrix responses at different concentrations An Odor Panel
Example Project City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant
City of Montreal Waste Water Treatment Plant The plant treats a volume of water equivalent to 50% of all waste water treated in Québec. With a capacity of about 7.6 million cubic metres per day (two billion U.S. gallons per day), it is one of the world’s largest.
City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sedimentation Tanksodor Treatment Units
City of Montreal Wastewater Treatment Plant Sludge TreatmentParking
City of Montreal Waste Water Treatment Plant Feeding channel Incinerator stack Grit removal
Some OdoWatch™ system installations Canada Landfill Site of BFI Usine de Triage Lachenaie Wastewater Treatment Plant of City of Montreal France Landfill Site of Claye-Souilly (Paris) Wastewater Treatment Plant of Ginestous (Toulouse) Rendering plant (Agen) Spain Composting Site EcoParc I in Barcelona USA Cranston, R.I. WasteWater Treatment Plant 2008 – Hyperion WWTP, Los Angeles
View the Cranston Data Actual odor plumes at Cranston, RI Actual odor plumes at Cranston, RI
Potential Benefits of OdoWatch ® Self-defense: distinguishes between odors caused on-site vs. odors caused nearby Right-sizing plant and equipment Prioritizing/ranking biggest contributors to odor Using optimal quantity of chemicals to neutralize odor Saving time and money on investigations
Potential Benefits of OdoWatch ® (cont.) Facilitating communication with local population to avoid costly disputes Providing a history of technical data Demonstrating effectiveness of actions taken Facilitating required odor impact studies
FAQ’s 1)Is it possible to relocate the E-nose onsite to measure odor at different spots? 2)To how many different compounds or molecules do the sensors react? 3)What is an odor image or pattern? 4)Can the E-noses accurately measure specific chemical compounds? 5)How do the E-noses recognize the characteristic odor of a site? 6)How long is a sensor lifetime? 7)What is an odor unit and what is the perception threshold? 8)How reliable are the measurements of the E-noses? 9)What is the modelling of odor impact based on? 10)Is the modelling visualised in 2D or 3D? 11)Is there a warranty on all parts of the OdoWatch ® system?
1)Is it possible to relocate the E-nose onsite to measure odor at different spots? For technical reasons, it is impossible to manufacture a truly mobile E-Nose. Clients often ask whether they can take an E-Nose at the time of a complaint and go with it on the location of the complaint to check the odors by means of the E-Nose. This is impossible for three reasons: Far from the odor source, and thus from the site, the odor has become dispersed. It is very weak, being at or below the sensitivity threshold of the E-nose. The ambient air usually carries so-called “background” olfactory pollution. Far from the source, that background disturbance may mask the odor sought, since the latter has become very dispersed. Moreover, E-noses only recognize the site odors for which they were calibrated. Far from the site, there are other odors (from other origins) that the E-nose will not be able to recognize. That is why the E-noses of the OdoWatch ® system are always positioned near the odor sources. 2)To how many different compounds or molecules do the sensors react? The OdoWatch ® sensors are non-specific Metal Oxide Sensors. This means that each sensor reacts to several compounds or molecules rather than to just one. The objective is to have in each E-nose 16 different sensors, each reacting in its own way to the gases present. It is the totality of the 16 responses that enables us to identify the odor image or pattern.
3)What is an odor image or pattern? The odor image corresponds to the interpretation of an odor by the human brain, with all its associations. For instance, at the age of 2, sitting in the family car while stopped at a gas station, you had noticed a very strong, penetrating, aggressive odor, but you were unable to identify it. Later, you came to associate the odor of gasoline with the idea of car, transportation, gas pump, etc. Today, as soon as you detect a light puff of gasoline odor, all these connotations come to your mind. That is what the odor image is. The human brain contains hundreds of thousands of odor images. 4)Can the E-noses accurately measure specific chemical compounds? Not for the time being, because this requires specific sensors that do not help odor identification in any way. On the other hand, ODOTECH is planning to include some highly accurate specific sensors to indicate in ppb or ppm the chemical composition of the air, in addition to its odor. Traditionally, air quality experts used chemical analysis of the compounds carried by the air. This gave them the chemical composition of the air but no odor, because there is no correlation between the two, once the number of compounds exceed 2 or 3. Today, OdoWatch ® can identify and quantify the odor. But some experts are still having trouble absorbing this new type of measurement. That is why those unfamiliar with the field of odors will always ask you: “is the odor measurement based on chemical composition?”. No, it is not, because there is no correlation in most instances. FAQ’s Continued
5) How do the E-noses recognize the characteristic odor of a site? E-noses must be trained (or calibrated) in order to be able to recognize the characteristic odors of a site, and to quantify them. This training occurs in three stages: Odor samples are collected on site, The samples are subjected to olfactometric analysis (human panel), The E-noses are exposed to the same samples and their responses are compared with the results of the analysis. The correlation is then established between the two via a statistical neural calculation. This enables the E-nose to perceive odor the way the human nose does. 6) How long is a sensor’s lifetime? The 16 sensors of each E-nose have a life of 1 to 2 years. It may however happen that sensors exposed to extremely severe operating conditions degrade more quickly or stop operating. At the Montreal Waste Water Treatment Plant, the 64 sensors of the 4 E-noses of the system have been in operation without a problem for 2 years. At the composting site in Barcelona, 1 of the 6 sensors of the E-nose exposed to the worst heat, dust and humidity conditions had to be replaced after 3 months. Since every OdoWatch® system is connected to the Internet, ODOTECH can diagnose instantaneously any sensor malfunction. FAQ’s Continued
7) What is an odor unit and what is the perception threshold? When measuring odor with an olfactometer, 6 human panellists are exposed to the odor sample via the dilution unit of the olfactometer. Initially, the odor being strong, all 6 indicate that they can smell it. The operator then dilutes the sample with pure air in a given, accurate ratio, and the 6 panellists respond. The operator keeps diluting the odor sample until 3 of the six panellists indicate that they can no longer smell the odor, but the other 3 can still smell it. By definition, the point at which 50% of the panellists can no longer smell the odor but 50% still can, is called the PERCEPTION THRESHOLD and is equal to 1 odor unit per cubic meter. To find out how many odor units the sample had in the first place, the operator – once the perception threshold has been reached – adds up all the dilutions that were required to reach that threshold; if the sample was diluted, say, 536 times, in order to reach 1 odor unit, then the sample odor concentration was 536 odor units initially. 8) How reliable are the measurements of the E-noses? The reliability of the E-noses corresponds to that of the human nose, with a relative error of about 20%. Moreover, odor sampling induces 5 to 10 % error. This is tantamount to saying that a perfect E-nose has a 25 % error limit. FAQ’s Continued
9) What is the modelling of odor impact based on? The model used by OdoWatch® consists of two sub-models: the Gaussian identical to the ISC of the US EPA, and the Gifford model optimised for shorter dispersion distances. While the Gaussian model is the one the most widely used throughout the world for dispersion studies, the addition of the Gifford model by ODOTECH improves its performance by taking into account the eddies at the outlet of the odor point sources. Validation of the model used by OdoWatch® was effected by comparing its predictions to the actual data measured in the field. A technical validation document (100 pages) is available on request. The ISC model is being replaced by an AERMOD model in line with US EPA directives. 10) Is the modelling visualised in 2D or 3D? There is no 3D model specifically for odors. 3D models require a very large amount of data, and the computations require great computing power: since this requires long computation times, it is impossible to show a plume in real time. 3D weather data are very difficult to find, and costly. While they are not three-dimensional, 2D models take into account the height of point sources (stacks). FAQ’s Continued
11) Is there a warranty on all parts of the OdoWatch® system? The OdoWatch® system is covered by a manufacturer's warranty of 1 year on all the parts and labor required for replacing those parts. During the warranty period, the free after-sales service provided by ODOTECH comprises: free technical support for use of the system (20 technician hours), call-back within 24 hours (outside holidays) upon receipt of a troubleshooting request, action (by telephone, modem, Internet, or on site, as required) by an authorized ODOTECH representative in the case of a defect covered by the warranty. FAQ’s Continued
Getting Started To Prepare a Proposal, we will need the following information