Presentation on theme: "National Autonomous University of Honduras Psychopedagogy class Professor: Rosa Palacios Herbert A. Simon Group #13 Karen Sarai Núñez Reina Eunice Argueta."— Presentation transcript:
National Autonomous University of Honduras Psychopedagogy class Professor: Rosa Palacios Herbert A. Simon Group #13 Karen Sarai Núñez Reina Eunice Argueta Marlon Edgardo Varela
Herbert Alexander Simon Herbert Alexander Simon was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on June 15, 1916 and died on February 9, 2001). He was an American political scientist, economist, sociologist, and psychologist, and professor. Simon was among the founding fathers of several of today's important scientific domains, including artificial intelligence, information processing, decision-making, problem-solving, attention economics, organization theory, complex systems, and computer simulation of scientific discovery. He also made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing.
Decision Making Theory Administrative behavior: Simon’s first book A study of decision-making processes in administrative organizations. It is also essential reading for students in business and management, economics, sociology, psychology computer science, government, and law. Administrative Behavior, as a text, addresses a wide range of human behaviors, cognitive abilities, management techniques, personnel policies, training goals and procedures, specialized roles, criteria for evaluation of accuracy and efficiency, and all of the ramifications of communication processes.
The task of rational decision making is to select the alternative that results in the more preferred set of all the possible consequences. This task can be divided into three required steps: 1.The identification and listing of all the alternatives. 2. The determination of all the consequences resulting from each of the alternatives. 3. The comparison of the accuracy and efficiency of each of these sets of consequences.
The time dimension is especially troublesome in decision making. Economics has long used the notion of time discounting and interest rates to compare present with future consequences of decisions. Actual decision making shows that people frequently are inconsistent in their choices between present and future. Decision Making Over Time
Symon's 3 Stages in Decision Making
AI is the intelligence of machines and the branch of computer science that aims to create it. In textbooks AI is defined as "the study and design of intelligent agents". It has become an essential part of the technology industry, providing the heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science. The central problems of AI include such traits as reasoning, knowledge, planning, learning, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. Artificial Intelligence
He created with Allen Newell the Logic Theory Machine in 1956 and in 1957 the General Problem Solver GPS programs. In the early 1960s Simon wrote a paper that machines might be able to replicate cold cognition, but not hot cognition. Simon was also interested in how humans learn and, with Edward Feigenbaum, he developed the EPAM (Elementary Perceiver and Memorizer) theory. This is one of the first theories of learning to be implemented as a computer program. Contributions to Artificial Intelligence
Simon´s view of thinking affected by AI is that thinking is a form of information-processing. Human thinking and information-processing programs perform three similar operations: They store the patterns in memory They scan data for patterns They apply the patterns to make inferences or generalizations. Problem solving thus involves two generalizations. A selective trial-and error search. One of the basic heuristic is means-end analysis Computer Programs Imitate Human Problem Solving
In order to test whether machines display intelligence, Simon and his colleagues identified task requiring intelligence and then built computer programs which carried out these tasks. Playing chess Solving math and physics problems Diagnosing disease Making discoveries in science Formulating hypotheses and testing them empirically. Computer programs have been developed which input and output words, formula, mages, and musical notations. These computer programs have been said to DISPLAY CREATIVITY.
Logic Theorist (LT). It discovers proofs for theorem contained in Principia Mathematics. The General Problem Solver (GPS). It attracted in means-end analysis, a basic heuristic in problem solving. Elementary Perceiver and Memorizer (EPAM). Simulates human recognition or learning. Artificial Intelligence Programs:
The Microsoft Active Protections Program (MAPP): Simulates the ability to recognize patterns in a manner similar to chess (grand) masters. The Adaptive Production System ( APS ): It engages in learning-by-doing, and learning-by-examples. Other programs that make discoveries in science developed by Simon and his colleagues are: BACON, BLACK, GLAUBER, STAHL Simon concluded that computer display intelligence, defined as behavior which is appropriate to the goal and adaptive to the environment
It was proposed by Herbert Simon as an alternative basis for the mathematical modeling of decision making, as used in economics and related disciplines. Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision making, rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have, the cognitive limitations of their minds, and the finite amount of time they have to make decisions. It complements rationality as optimization, which views decision making as a fully rational process of finding an optimal choice given the information available. Bounded Rationality
Herbert Simon has been credited for revolutionary changes in microeconomics. At the Cowles Commission, Simon’s main goal was to link economic theory to mathematics and statistics. His main contributions were to the fields of general equilibrium and econometrics. Rational behavior, in economics, means that individuals maximize his utility function under the limitations they face. Contributions to Economics
Simon's work has strongly influenced John Mighton, developer of a remedial program which has achieved significant success in improving mathematics performance among elementary and high school students. All the facts experimented from laboratories and from the extensive case studies of professionals, indicate that real competence only comes with extensive practice. When teaching the instructional task is not to “kill” motivation by demanding tool, but to find tasks that provide practice while at the same time sustaining interest. Contributions to Pedagogy
Satisficing, as defined by Simon, can be applied to library and information science where researchers consider how much information is adequate to meet their information need. Applying satisficing to research is a way for researchers to adjust to the vast amount of information today. Contributions to Library Science
As you remember… 1. What are the Simon´s main contributions?