Presentation on theme: "Perception and Pattern Recognition What types of information do we use to perceive the world correctly? What are the major theories about how we recognize."— Presentation transcript:
Perception and Pattern Recognition What types of information do we use to perceive the world correctly? What are the major theories about how we recognize patterns? What are the strengths and weaknesses of these theories?
Types of Perceptual Processes Bottom-up - work up from sensory info. Top-down - apply knowledge and experience
Top-Down Effects Chess masters remember chess board patterns better than novices (Chase & Simon,1973) Easier to recognize objects in context (Palmer,1975) C
Template Matching Theory Recognize patterns by matching stimulus to template Works in price scanners
Problems with Template Matching Differences in orientation R R Differences in size R R Differences in form R R R R
Feature Analysis Identify simple features of patterns Combine features into complex patterns Hubel & Wiesel (1965) found feature detector neurons in cats Visual search: easier to find target when it doesn’t share features with the background (Neisser,1964)
Prototype Matching Theory Prototype - “best” or “typical” representation of a pattern Stimulus is compared to prototypes Uncertainty in pattern recognition Pseudomemory (Solso & McCarthy,1981)