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A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 6 Windows 9x/Me Commands and Startup Disk.

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Presentation on theme: "A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 6 Windows 9x/Me Commands and Startup Disk."— Presentation transcript:

1 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Chapter 6 Windows 9x/Me Commands and Startup Disk

2 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Understanding DOS and Windows 9x/Me Startup Windows 9x/Me is built on a DOS core Two ways to load the MS-DOS core –From the Windows 9x/Me hard drive –From a Windows 9x/Me startup disk 2/26

3 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 6-1 Steps to load the MS-DOS core 3/26

4 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 6-2 Memory address map (not to scale) showing the starting and ending addresses of conventional, upper, and extended memory, including the high memory area 4/26

5 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Windows 9x/Me and DOS Utilities That Manage Memory Himem.sys: device driver for memory above 640KB Emm386.exe: loads drivers into upper memory Using Himem.sys –Himem.sys manages memory as a device –Executed by the Device= command in Config.sys –File can also be created on a floppy disk Preparation for using Emm386.exe –View current memory allocation: Mem /C |More –Objective: maximize total amount of free memory 5/26

6 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 6-5 MEM report with /C option on a PC not using upper memory 6/26

7 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 6-6 Config.sys set to use upper memory 7/26

8 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Windows 9x/Me and DOS Utilities That Manage Memory (continued) Loading device drivers high –Use Devicehigh= command in Config.sys –Order commands so largest drivers are loaded first –MEM /M filename: displays memory needed by driver –A UMB may also be loaded from Autoexec.bat Relation of Windows 9x/Me to DOS memory –System is mostly 32-bit OS using extended memory –Uses base and upper memory for 16-bit components 8/26

9 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Accessing a Command Prompt Click Start, Programs, and MS-DOS Prompt Enter Command.com in the Run dialog box Boot from any bootable floppy disk Restart in MS-DOS mode from Shutdown –Not available in Windows Me Hold down the Ctrl key or the F8 key while booting –Select Command prompt only from menu that appears 9/26

10 A+ Guide to Software, 4e File and Directory Naming Conventions Three components in the DOS 8.3 filename format –Filename: contains up to eight characters –Separating period –File extension of up to three characters Example of a DOS filename: myFile.exe Legitimate characters –Letters a through z –The numbers 0 through 9 –Special characters: _ ^ $ ~ ! # % & – { } ( ' ` Do not use space, period, *, ?, \ in the filename 10/26

11 A+ Guide to Software, 4e File and Directory Naming Conventions (continued) Conventions used in Windows –Directory names/filenames can be up to 255 characters –Directory names and filenames can contain spaces –Maximum directory depth depends on length of name DOS can only read names in 8.3 format DOS truncates long filenames –Example: Mydocument.doc becomes Mydocum~.doc 11/26

12 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Using Wildcard Characters in Command Lines Wildcard character: used to represent file group Question mark (?): wildcard for one character Asterisk (*): wildcard for more than one character Example: dir a*.??? –Command used to search for files –All files starting with ‘a’ and ending with any extension 12/26

13 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage Files and Directories Dir: lists files and directories –Example: DIR Myfile.txt Rename or Ren: renames a file or folder –Example: Ren Myfile.txt Mybackup.txt Type: displays contents of a text file on your screen –Example: Type Myfile.txt |More Del or Erase: erases files or groups of files –Example: A:\Docs> Del *.* Copy: copies a single file or group of files –Example: C:\>Copy C:\Docs\*.* A: 13/26

14 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage Files and Directories (continued) Xcopy /C /S /Y /D: Copy functions plus options –Example: C:\>Xcopy C:\Docs\*.* A: /D:03/14/06 Deltree [Drive:]Path: deletes directory tree –Example: C:\>Deltree C:\Docs Mkdir [Drive:]Path or Md [Drive:]Path –Creates a subdirectory under a directory –Example: Mkdir C:\Game\Chess Chdir [Drive:]Path or Cd [Drive:]Path or Cd.. –Changes current default directory –Example: Cd C:\Game\Chess 14/26

15 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage Files and Directories (continued) Rmdir [Drive:]Path or Rd [Drive:]Path –Removes a subdirectory –Example: C:\>Rmdir C:\Game\Chess Three conditions for the use of Rmdir –The directory must contain no files –The directory must contain no subdirectories –The directory must not be the current directory Attrib: displays or changes file attributes –Example: Attrib +H MyFile.txt 15/26

16 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage Files and Directories (continued) Extract Filename.Cab File1.Ext /D –Extracts files from a cabinet file –Example: Extract Ebd.cab /D Edit [Path][Filename]: opens DOS Edit program –Example: Edit A:\Autoexec.bat 16/26

17 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage Hard Drives Chkdsk [Drive:] /F /R: fixes file system errors –Example: Chkdsk C: /F Scandisk Drive: A/P –Scans a hard drive for errors –Repairs errors if possible –Example: Scandisk C: Defrag Drive: /S –Examines a hard drive or disk for fragmented files –Rewrites these files to the drive in contiguous clusters –Example: Defrag C: /S:N 17/26

18 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage Hard Drives (continued) Fdisk /Status /MBR: prepare a hard drive for first use –Example: Fdisk /MBR Format Drive: /S /V: VolumeName /Q /U /Autotest –Used to format a disk or a hard drive Unformat: reverses effect of an accidental format –Example: Unformat C: Debug –Text editor with multiple capabilities –Accessed by entering Debug command 18/26

19 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Commands to Manage the Operating System Sys Drive: copies system files for booting to disk –Example: Sys: C Scanreg/Restore/Fix/Backup: restores the registry –Example: Scanreg/Backup Ver: displays the version of the OS in use MSD: Microsoft Diagnostic Utility 19/26

20 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 6-11 MSD opening screen 20/26

21 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Using Batch Files Execute a list of commands multiple times Save time and reduce errors How to create a batch file –Open a file in a text editor –Place commands in the file –Save the file with a.bat extension Executing batch file –Enter name at command prompt –Extension may be omitted 21/26

22 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Using the Windows 9x/Me Startup Disk Bootable (system) disk –Floppy disk with basic software for booting an OS Rescue disk( emergency startup disk (ESD), or startup disk) –Bootable disk with utility programs for troubleshooting PC technician should always have a rescue disk 22/26

23 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Creating a Windows 9x/Me Startup Disk Open the Control Panel Double-click the Add/Remove Programs icon Click Startup Disk tab and then click Create Disk Insert the Windows CD if it is requested –Windows then creates the startup disk Write protect and label the disk 23/26

24 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Using a Startup Disk to Partition and Format a New Drive Use Fdisk to partition a drive –Boot from the startup disk and enter Fdisk at prompt –Select option 1 to create a partition –Use option 1 (next menu) to create primary partition –Use option 1 or 2 to create other partitions –Use option 3 to create logical drives –Select if large disk support will be used (FAT32) –Exit Fdisk and reboot PC to format logical drives Objects created by formatting process –Partition table, partitions, and logical drives 24/26

25 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Figure 6-14 Fdisk menu to create partitions and logical drives 25/26

26 A+ Guide to Software, 4e Table 6-6 Error messages that appear after the PC has passed POST and before an OS has successfully loaded 26/26


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