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Real and Artificial Intelligence Elaine Regelson Director of Mentoring and Retention Computer Science Professor Ross Beveridge.

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Presentation on theme: "Real and Artificial Intelligence Elaine Regelson Director of Mentoring and Retention Computer Science Professor Ross Beveridge."— Presentation transcript:

1 Real and Artificial Intelligence Elaine Regelson Director of Mentoring and Retention Computer Science Professor Ross Beveridge

2 What is “Intelligence”? Thoughts … ??

3 What is “intelligence”? 1. the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills: an eminent man of great intelligence 2. a person or being with the ability to acquire and apply knowledge and skills: extraterrestrial intelligences [Oxford English Dictionary online: http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/american_english/intelligence]

4 What is intelligent? That is, what are some examples of things you think are intelligent? Thoughts?

5 What is intelligent? People?

6 What is intelligent? People? Mice?

7 What is intelligent? People? Mice? Bees?

8 What is intelligent? People? Mice? Bees? … or cockroaches?

9 What is intelligent? People? Mice? Bees? … or cockroaches? Amoebae?

10 What is intelligent? People? Mice? Bees? … or cockroaches? Amoebae? Rocks?

11 Back to intelligence: Is there only one kind?

12 Back to intelligence: Is there only one kind? If so, what is it?

13 Theory of Multiple Intelligences Dr. Howard Gardner: not only do human beings have several different ways of learning and processing information, but these methods are relatively independent of one another: leading to multiple "intelligences" as opposed to a “general intelligence factor” among correlated abilities http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Gardner

14 Dr. Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences Linguistic, logic-mathematical, musical, spatial, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic … and considering a ninth: existential intelligence (the posing and pondering of "big questions") http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Gardner

15 So how do you know … … if something is intelligent?

16 Can Machines Be Intelligent?

17 How would you know?

18 Thinking Machines Professor Ross Beveridge April, 2009 Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

19 Thinking Machines Introduction: What is this machine thinking? Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

20 Up Front - Visual Sources Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

21 Thinking - Machines TM 3 Aristotle & Other Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

22 Are people special?

23 What would make them special?

24 Let’s consider this…

25 Perspective: Humans are Special 1. We are the center of the Universe. Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

26 Perspective: Humans are Special 1. We our the center of the Universe. 2. We are not animals. Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

27 Perspective: Humans are Special 1. We are the center of the Universe. 2. We are not animals. 3. Only animal to use tools. Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

28 Perspective: Humans are Special 1. We are the center of the Universe. 2. We are not animals. 3. Only animal to use tools. 4. Only animal to use language. Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

29 Perspective: Humans are Special 1. We are the center of the Universe. 2. We are not animals. 3. Only animal to use tools. 4. Only animal to use language. 5. Well, at least we are intelligent. Take heart, we are the ones building the machines. Maybe defining intelligence is tricky! Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

30 Some Definitions of A.I. Dean et. al.: Design and study of computer programs that behave intelligently. Rich and Knight: The study of how to make computers do things which, at the moment, people do better. Handbook of AI: Is the part of computer science concerned with designing intelligent computer systems, that is, systems that exhibit the characteristics we associate with intelligence in human behavior - understanding language, reasoning, solving problems, and so on. Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

31 Talents, Human & Machine TalentHumanMachine ArithmeticGive it up.Great! Short Term Memory7 +/- 2GigaBytes Memory - AssociationGreat!Struggling Natural LanguageGreat!Getting better Scheduling - formalGive it up.Great! Handling unexpectedResourcefulDreadful … ? GoodWhat is it?Common Sense Perception - SightGreat!Not general Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

32 Look Ma - No Hands Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

33 Computer - Listen up! Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

34 Accomplishments - Chess Chess is as elaborate a waste of human intelligence as you can find outside an advertising agency. Raymond ChandlerRaymond ChandlerUS detective novelist & screenwriter (1888 - 1959) Raymond Chandler’s views on waste aside, he and many others associate Chess with intelligence. "If you can't beat your computer at chess, try kickboxing.” Anon Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

35 TD Gammon Temporal Difference Learning Tesauro 1994 “It is quite true that rollout results from three backgammon playing computer programs (Expert Backgammon, TD-Gammon, and Jellyfish) have given us new insights into opening rolls and other phases of the game.” Kit Woolsey - 1995 Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

36 Better Jet Engines Ashley, Steven, "Engineous Explores the Design Space", Mechanical Engineering, February 1992, pp. 49-52. Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

37 Too Far Out Not to Think AI planner controls the Deep Space 1 space probe - NASA 1999 Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

38 Thinking Machines & CSU Darrell Whitley Genetic Algorithm & Search Charles Anderson Neural Nets & Reinforcement Learning Adele Howe Planning & Evaluation Ross Beveridge Computer Vision & Search Bruce Draper Computer Vision & Learning Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

39 Computer Vision - Faces People do it well. and how about machines? Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

40 CSU Face Recognition Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

41 Internet Agents - Metasearch Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

42 What is on your Mind Personal Overview of Artificial Intelligence, Ross Beveridge, April 2009

43 Can Machines Be Intelligent? How would we know? Next few slides based on http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Turing_test

44 Alan Turing British mathematician “Father of modern computer science”

45 Alan Turing British mathematician “Father of modern computer science” 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” which opens with the words “Can computers think?”

46 Alan Turing It turns out that that’s very hard to determine, so he chose an alternative:

47 Alan Turing “Are there imaginable digital computers that would do well in the ‘imitation game’?”

48 Imitation Game [1] Man and woman, separate rooms; both try to emulate the opposite gender while “judges” try to tell them apart while communicating only via typewritten slips of paper.

49 Imitation Game [2] In this version the human “judge” tries to figure out which “player” is a human and which is a computer.

50 Turing Test

51 Imitation Game [2] The question to be resolved: “Is it possible to ask questions to identify which is which using only typewritten communications?”

52 What would YOU ask?

53 MANY more “fields”

54 Neural networks Computers figuring out how to solve complex problems without the human programmers knowing what is going on…

55 Communication

56 Speech generation (the computer talks) Solved adequately in the 1970’s. Great progress with aesthetically pleasing voices has been made, but there’s still lots to be done.

57 Communication Speech recognition (the computer recognizes the words a person is speaking). Individual words addressed reasonably in the very late 1970s A primitive versions of connected speech recognition began in the very early 1980s

58 Communication Speech recognition (the computer recognizes the words a person is speaking) Phone speech is improving. Voices? Accents?

59 Communication Speech understanding (the computer “actually” “understands” – parses and properly interprets – what the person is saying). But it’s often hard.

60 Communication Speech understanding (the computer “actually” “understands” – parses and properly interprets – what the person is saying). But it’s often hard. What exactly does “Flying airplanes can be dangerous” mean?

61 Communication Speech understanding (the computer “understands” what the person is saying): Now we have Watson playing Jeopardy!

62 And more still for you and your peers to discover! Wrapping up:

63 So … What is intelligence?

64 Real versus artificial intelligence How will we know?

65 What next? Look online –IBM’s “Watson” playing Jeopardy –Amazing robots –Old and new examples of intelligence, artificial or otherwise

66 What next? Or read. Maybe –meet “Mike” in Robert Heinlein’s “Moon Is a Harsh Mistress” (weird and … um … “adult”) –or “HAL” in Stanley Kubrick’s “2001: A Space Odyssey” –or one of Dr. Howard Gardner’s books on intelligence –or any of MANY other books and articles

67 What next? Or see what you can imagine. Maybe –thinking machines –new ideas for robots –new kinds of “intelligence” –what else might animals be capable of doing? –what else might YOU be capable of doing?

68 Any questions or comments?


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