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Build a Real Universal Turing Machine  By now had all necessary ideas… 1946 Turing’s plans got approval  Automatic Computing Engine (ACE)  Progress.

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Presentation on theme: "Build a Real Universal Turing Machine  By now had all necessary ideas… 1946 Turing’s plans got approval  Automatic Computing Engine (ACE)  Progress."— Presentation transcript:

1 Build a Real Universal Turing Machine  By now had all necessary ideas… 1946 Turing’s plans got approval  Automatic Computing Engine (ACE)  Progress was slow – lack of cooperation  Turing without influence, disillusioned  (…full ACE was not actually complete until 1957 (obsolete))  1947 Turing back to Cambridge  Interest in Neurology  Wrote early paper on Neural Nets  Believed complex mechanical system could exhibit learning ability  1948 Turing and Champernowne wrote a chess program  (for a computer that did not yet exist.)  1948 Manchester Computer completed  Turing accepted post as deputy director  Worked on software for Manchester Mark I  1950 “Computing Machinery and Intelligence” published  … but became more interested in biology - morphogenesis

2 Alan Turing “The 'skin of an onion' analogy is also helpful. In considering the functions of the mind or the brain we find certain operations which we can explain in purely mechanical terms. This we say does not correspond to the real mind: it is a sort of skin which we must strip off if we are to find the real mind. But then in what remains we find a further skin to be stripped off, and so on. Proceeding in this way do we ever come to the 'real' mind, or do we eventually come to the skin which has nothing in it? In the latter case the whole mind is mechanical.”

3 Turing’s End  March 1952 Arrested for “Gross Indecency”  No denial - Saw no wrong with his actions  Convicted – given choice  Prison  Oestrogen injections  Lost security clearance for GCHQ  June 1954  Why apple?  Conspiracy theories…  Security risk  Recognition: Turing Award established (ACM, 1966)

4 And three others… Oliver Selfridge (Pandemonium theory) Nathaniel Rochester (IBM, designed 701) Trenchard More (Natural Deduction) 1956 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI John McCarthyMarvin MinskyClaude ShannonRay Solomonoff Alan NewellHerbert SimonArthur Samuel

5 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI John McCarthy  First degree in mathematics  Graduate work on finite automata  Got interested in digital computers after Summer working at IBM  Was teaching at Dartmouth  Brought together the researchers  Labelled the field “Artificial Intelligence” Later…  Worked on Formal Logic side of AI  Invented LISP programming language  Won Turing Award in 1971

6 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Marvin Minsky Later…  Society of Mind idea  Work on artificial neural networks: proved perceptrons can’t solve some problems  Work in theoretical Computer Science: 2-pushdown-stack automaton = Turing Machine  Won Turing Award in 1969  Recent book: The Emotion Machine  1951 built a neural net out of vacuum tubes, to train a simulated rat to get out of a maze  Combined learning with planning ahead in his Ph.D. thesis

7 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Claude Shannon Most famous of all participants, but not for AI….  Worked on analogue computer with cogs and wheels  Showed that electromechanical relay switches could solve boolean algebra problems  digital instead of analogue  Lead to digital calculators  1948 “A Mathematical Theory of Communication”  1950 created mechanical mouse  Could find its way out of a maze  Learnt from experience  1950 wrote about chess playing computer program  Made a fortune in Las Vegas applying his maths to roulette etc.

8 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Ray Solomonoff  Algorithmic Probability  probability of some string having been generated by an algorithm  Applied to Induction  Optimal Machine Learner  Theoretical idea…  Not computable  But can be approximated

9 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Herbert Simon  Originally a political scientist – how bureaucracies function  Became interested in organisational decision making  Around 1954 he decided… best way to study problem-solving is to simulate on computer  Developed experimental technique of verbal protocol analysis  Interested in role of knowledge in expertise  1978 won Nobel Prize in Economics “Over Christmas, Allen Newell and I created a thinking machine.” January 1956

10 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Alan Newell  1955 designed a chess playing program Later…  1983 Developed SOAR architecture  Attempting a unified theory of cognition

11 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Alan NewellHerbert Simon  1956 Logic Theory Machine  Saw that theorem proving can be reduced to search  Search tree to find a proof for a theorem  Considered to be first AI program  1957 General Problem Solver  Heuristics  Means-ends analysis  1975 won Turing Award

12 Dartmouth Conference: The Founding Fathers of AI Arthur Samuel  Developed a checkers playing program  Developed alpha-beta tree idea  Made his program learn to improve itself  1962 his program beat a state champion

13 McCarthy et al 1955 “We propose that a 2 month, 10 man study of artificial intelligence be carried out during the summer of 1956 at Dartmouth College in Hanover, New Hampshire. The study is to proceed on the basis of the conjecture that every aspect of learning or any other feature of intelligence can in principle be so precisely described that a machine can be made to simulate it. An attempt will be made to find how to make machines use language, form abstractions and concepts, solve kinds of problems now reserved for humans, and improve themselves. We think that a significant advance can be made in one or more of these problems if a carefully selected group of scientists work on it together for a summer.”

14 1956 Dartmouth Conference: What was achieved?  Not much  People didn’t agree on the format and weren’t all there together  Newell and Simon didn’t spend much time…  Too busy working on their logic theorist  McCarthy was disappointed  But got people to know each other…

15 Main Thrusts of Work in Early Days… 1.Reduce the search tree for search programs  For example, search programs for:  Logic Theorems  Geometry theorems  Algebra 2.Make computers learn for themselves  For example:  Chess playing machines  Checkers playing machines  Pattern recognition AI Developments from

16 Herbert Simon, 1957 “It is not my aim to surprise or shock you – but the simplest way I can summarize is to say that there are now in the world machines that can think, that can learn and that can create. Moreover, their ability to do these things is going to increase rapidly until – in a visible future – the range of problems they can handle will be coextensive with the range to which the human mind has been applied.”

17 Newell and Simon’s progress…  Discovered that humans don’t really act like Logic Theorist  Psychologists Moore and Anderson had pioneered “think aloud” experiments  Other AI researchers were merely concerned with programs that performed well  Newell and Simon wanted programs that solved problems in the same ways as humans  They branched off…  More Cognitive Science than core AI  Developed the general problem solver (GPS)  Using heuristics  Using means-end analysis  Solved monkey-chair-banana type problems

18 Work at IBM…  Minsky hired Herbert Gelernter to work on new IBM 704  Geometry Theorem Prover  Gave visual input of geometry problem by coding it in (not camera)  This input reduced branching factor from 1000 to 5  Took Gelernter 3 yrs to program it (much longer than expected)  Also at IBM  Samuel working on his checkers program  Alex Bernstein working on chess program

19 Trouble at IBM…  AI work noticed by popular press  Publicity attracted attention of IBM shareholders  Asked T. J. Watson (president of IBM)  explain why research dollars were being used for "frivolous matters"  IBM noticed that customers were frightened of idea of "electronic brains" and "thinking machines“  1960 Internal report prepared recommended IBM stop AI  IBM told customers  computers will only do what they were told  Bernstein became psychiatrist  Gelernter became physicist  Samuel went to Europe

20 McCarthy’s progress…  Developed LISP programming language  List Processing  Makes it easy to program AI ideas  Makes it easy for a program to alter its own instructions  McCarthy wanted programs to add to their own commonsense  To deduce consequences  Started looking at IF-THEN rules (like later expert systems)  LISP was heavy on computer power – more useful in 1970s  McCarthy also pioneered idea of time-sharing computers

21 Minsky’s progress at MIT…  Sputnik left US behind technologically  US created DARPA  1963 MIT got over $2M for Machine Aided Cognition  MAC project brought MIT about $3M a year in grants thereafter  Minsky’s student James Slagle worked on SAINT program  Solved symbolic integration problems  Later evolved into MACSYMA


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