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Presented By: Abdur Rahim 03-CIVIL-961 Ovais Ali 03-CIVIL-973 Haseeb Khan 03-CIVIL-986 Tajammal Abbas 03-CIVIL-974 Artificial Intelligence.

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Presentation on theme: "Presented By: Abdur Rahim 03-CIVIL-961 Ovais Ali 03-CIVIL-973 Haseeb Khan 03-CIVIL-986 Tajammal Abbas 03-CIVIL-974 Artificial Intelligence."— Presentation transcript:

1 Presented By: Abdur Rahim 03-CIVIL-961 Ovais Ali 03-CIVIL-973 Haseeb Khan 03-CIVIL-986 Tajammal Abbas 03-CIVIL-974 Artificial Intelligence

2 Overview  Intelligence  What is AI  Branches  Neural Networks  Historical overview  Applications  Limitations  Turing test  Machine learning  Chess & AI  AI based movies  Future of AI

3 Intelligence  General mental capability to reason  Solving problems  Thinking abstractly  Decision-making  Learning and understanding new material  Getting profit from past experience

4 What is Artificial intelligence  Designing computer programs to make computers smarter  Ability of an artifact to perform the same kinds of functions that characterize human thought  Machine doing what would be considered intelligent if done by human

5 Definitions by categories Systems that think like humans System that think rationally Systems that act like humans Systems that act rationally

6 Artificial intelligence in a vision

7 Branches of AI  Logical AI Search  Search  Pattern Recognition  Representation  Inference  Common Sense Knowledge and Reasoning  Virtual reality

8 What are Neural Nets?  A neural net is an artificial representation of the human brain that tries to simulate its learning process.  The term "artificial" means that neural nets are implemented in computer programs that are able to handle the large number of necessary calculations during the learning process

9 The biological model  The human brain consists of a large number (more than a billion) of neural cells that process information's.  Each cell works like a simple processor and only the massive interaction between all cells and their parallel processing makes the brain's abilities possible

10 Biological Model

11 Artificial Neuron

12 AI Pioneers  Alan M. Turing  “Computing Machinery and Intelligence”  Marvin Minksy  Constructed the first neural net machine  Herbert Simon, Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw  Developed the first AI computer program

13 Famous AI Programs  ELIZA (Joseph Weizenbaum)  Psychologist  Deep Blue (IBM)  Chess program  Cyc (MCC and Cycorp)  Multi-contextual knowledge base and inference engine  HAL (Arthur C. Clarke)  Space explorer

14 Success or applications of AI  Face Recognition  Bacterial Diagnosis  Mass Spectroscopy  Speech dictation  IQ tests  Genetic  Probability  DNA/Protein  Chess

15 Success or applications of AI  Driving a car  Weather  Sports  Optimizing Nuclear Power  Automatic fuzzy clustering  E-design (bridges, houses)  E-government decision and planning  E-commerce  E-learning  Robotics  Translation

16 Limitation of AI  Cognitive sciences still have not succeeded in determining exactly what the human abilities are.  program designers lack understanding of the intellectual mechanisms required to do the task efficiently as that of expert person.  One is biological so AI should study more humans and imitate psychology and physiology.

17 The Turing Test  Motivated to identify intelligence in a computer program.  Proposed in 1950 by Alan Turing.  Original Proposal:  Given a person X, a computer Y, and an interrogator C, C isolated from X and Y.  C must determine who is the person  X is intelligent if it can fool C.

18 Interrogator Person Computer

19 Problems with the Turing Test  Intelligence may be considered as a continuum. The Turing test only identifies one (very strong) type of intelligence, and thus offers no means to measure.  Does fooling C really imply intelligence?

20 Our Proposal  Motivated to allow:  a measure of intelligence.  more rigid definitions.  more flexible admission of programs.

21 Example  The set of all Math Problems is a maximal element.  If a program can solve these problems, it is said to be an Expert in Math Problems.

22 Machine Learning

23 What Is Machine Learning?  Enabling machines to process data in such a way that it can be to make future decisions  ML been studied for many years  ML has many applications in a variety of fields

24 Tasks For Machines  Pattern recognition  Grouping/classification  Strategizing  Generating heuristics  Problem solving

25 Issues in Machine Learning  Computational complexity  Ethics  Correctness  Would the exact desired learning be constructed?  What if there is an error in learning?

26 Chess & AI

27 Chess  In the early 1950's Alan Turing wrote the first modern chess program  Chess was one of the original AI problems, because it represented one form of intelligent behavior  Most successful chess programs use some kind of search algorithm as their foundation for choosing move

28 Chess Algorithms  Chess base on search Algorithm  Each piece can be assigned a number indicating its rank (pawns are worth 1, knights and bishops 3, rooks 5, queens 9 )  This figure can be multiplied by another number indicating the strength of the piece's position on the board  Computer tries to choose the move that will leave it in the strongest position Do this by evaluation function

29 Chess Algorithms  Other formulas quantify concepts like "king safety," or how well protected that piece is. These rules, called heuristics, but they give the computer a rough sense of the state of the game and a basis on which to make its decisions

30 AI based movies Matrix In the near future, a computer hacker named Noe discovers that all life on Earth may be nothing more than an elaborate illusion created by a malevolent cyber- intelligence, for the purpose of placating us while our life essence is “farmed” to the Matrix’s campaign

31 Matrix Reloaded Neo, Morpheus, Trinity, and the rest pf their crew continue to battle the Machine that have enslaved the human race in the matrix. Now, more human are waking up out of the matrix and attempting to live

32 Matrix Revolution In the third installment, the epic war between man and machine reaches a thundering crescendo: the Zion military aided by courageous civilian volunteers like Zee and the kid desperately battles to hold back the Sentinel invasion as the machine army bores into their stronghold

33 X–Files Episode7 A computer with highly advanced Artificial Intelligence begins to kill in order to preserve its existence when it is deemed inefficient to continue controlling the workings of an office building. Rob La Belle programmer of AI Computer

34 Future of Artificial Intelligence However, there is little doubt among the community that artificial machines will be capable of intelligent thought in the near future. It's just a question of what and when... The machines may be pure silicon, quantum computers or hybrid combinations of manufactured components and neural tissue. As for the date, expect great things to happen within this century

35 Thanks for your Cooperation

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