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Multimedia Games Development COM429M2 Week 1 Introduction to games.

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Presentation on theme: "Multimedia Games Development COM429M2 Week 1 Introduction to games."— Presentation transcript:

1 Multimedia Games Development COM429M2 Week 1 Introduction to games

2 Lecture overview Game definition/elements Rationale for playing games Development factors Player classification Flow characteristics Demographics

3 Defining a game Interest or pursuit which may include an element of competitiveness Typically follows rule set Form of entertainment or serious objective Includes traditional and modern e.g. card/board/video

4 Games have 4 common fundamental or standard elements Representation Interaction Conflict Safety Fundamentals

5 Representation Typical game comprises of a formal model to represent/simulate alternative realities where The game is self contained Has explicit or implicit rules Level of component interaction

6 Interaction Interaction can have static and dynamic elements e.g. Chess Chess pieces (Static) Position changes over time (Dynamic) Players action affects other players directly

7 Conflict Conflict is side effect of interaction based on players objectives or needs Player pursues goals Encounters obstacles e.g. other player, game environment, time etc

8 Safety Conflict contains element of danger Game worlds allows safe way to experience dangerous situations Outcome not as extreme e.g. death Trade off possible e.g. trade piece for position or tempo in Chess

9 Reasons for playing games Socializing Seclusion Competition Learn Mastery Escapism Addiction

10 Socializing Multiplayer games offers opportunity to socialize Interact over distance One to one, thousands or millions

11 Seclusion Live in virtual world Create own space (Second life)

12 Competition Urge to compete AI or human

13 Learn Play to learn (Childhood/animal kingdom) Skills learned based on objectives of game Different types of learning (conscious or subconscious) Mental exercises

14 Mastery Need to master and dominate Sense of accomplishment, peer approval

15 Escapism Withdraw or escape from real world Explore or fulfil fantasy Stress relief Behaviour not usually socially accepted

16 Addiction Addictive personalities Fills a need Social consequences

17 Player types Different player types with different needs and objectives Different perception of experience Categorize using metrics e.g. location, psychographics & demographics.

18 Location Players culture/location affects attitudes towards gaming e.g. western gamers and first person shooters Need for consideration in development process Game related infrastructure Broadband vs dial up, wired vs wireless Console (platform type) vs. computer Social factors, tolerance and norms

19 Psychographics Local values, attitudes, perceptions, lifestyles and modes of thinking Influence cultural attitude to games, game genres and game play Essential part of planning/development process

20 Player classification (Bartle) Bartle’s classification of player types Richard Bartle, “Hearts, Clubs, Diamonds, Spades: Players Who Suit MUDs”.

21 Game requires a healthy balance of the different types of players to be successful. Title dependant Self balancing or design based balancing Players have opportunity to adapt Player classification (Bartle)

22 Reasons to play (Xeo design) XEO design report entitled “Why we play games” Studied gamer types Classification on player objectives Successful games include majority of elements

23 Hard fun Enjoyment drawn from tackling meaningful challenges Sense of accomplishment through overcoming obstacles Game design involves careful balance of creating frustration and sense of triumph

24 Easy fun Player focus on the pure enjoyment of experiencing the game activities Less focus on achievement and success Player becomes immersed and explores world

25 Altered states Enjoyment drawn from changing mental states Relieves stress or boredom Focus on creating world that enables altered state

26 Socializing Games create environment to socialize, co- operate or perform/show off Enjoyment based on interaction Game as enabler to social interaction

27 Gamer classification Casual and hard core gamers Adams identified 15 factors for classifying players as casual or hard-core Metrics to calculate “gamer dedication” Produces classification scale

28 Gamer classification Hard-core gamers (Kim & Adams) High level of technical expertise Early adopters (High end computers/consoles) Willing to pay to play Preference for action/violent games Willing to play for long periods in complex games

29 Gamer classification Hard-core gamers (Kim & Adams) Source game related information Participate in forums/bulleting boards Play for sense of satisfaction in game mastery/completion High tolerance level to game obstacles Create game mods

30 Gamer classification Hard-core gamers (Adams)

31 Consumer classification Values, Attitudes, and Lifestyles Survey (VALS) undertaken at Stanford Research Institute. VALS explains relationship between personality traits and consumer behavior Define personal traits and extend to which an individual has these

32 Csikszentmihalyi (Psychologist) introduced the idea of state called “flow” or “optimal experience” Belief that certain mental states induce high level of focus on an activity Focus leads to high level of enjoyment and fulfillment in completing a task or activity Flow is typically defined as being able to devote total concentration effortlessly to a task Flow and Optimal Experience

33 Users undertake activity they believe they can complete Users focus entirely on activity Activity has clear goals/outcomes Activity has direct/immediate feedback User experience becomes effortless Worries and concerns vanish User is in control Experience of time is altered Flow characteristics

34 Game designers try to build environment to induce “flow”. Central idea is the flow channel Challenges + insufficient skills = anxiety Challenges + excessive skills = boredom Flow is achieved by balancing challenge and skill. Adapt incrementally as skill levels increase. Flow characteristics

35 Flow channel

36 Demographics Gender Age Disposable income Education Marital status Ethnicity Demographics provide valuable information on the target audience/market

37 Demographics Influence on games elements Layout of interface Plot and characters Pace Difficulty Appropriate content

38 Multimedia Games Development COM429M2 Week 1 Introduction to games

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