2To Know Basic history of AI Know some of the important events or at least what happend in different erasDifficulty of defining intelligence and some of the attemptsFleeting nature of the definitionDifference of humanly/rational thinking/actingTuring testRational agents…
3Course Info Webpage: http://people.sabanciuniv.edu/~berrin/cs404/ for info, expectations, lecture notes, assignments, ...Linked from SuCourse
4best chess player in the world, Gary Kasparov, lost a six-game chess On May 12th, 1997, thebest chess player in the world, Gary Kasparov,lost a six-game chessmatch to a computernamed “Deep Blue 2”What was so significantabout this event?Being able to program a computer to defeat a Grand Master levelchess player had been a long-standing goal of the science ofartificial intelligence - and now it has been achieved
5What is Artificial Intelligence? Intelligence is difficult to define and understand, even for philosophers and psychologists who spend their lives studying it. But this elusive quality is, to many people, the characteristic that sets humans apart from other species“What is intelligence, anyway? It is only a word that people use to name those unknown processes with which our brains solve problems we call hard. But whenever you learn a skill yourself, you are less impressed or mystified when other people do the same.This is why the meaning of “intelligence” seems so elusive: It describes not some definite thing but only the momentary horizon of our ignorance about how minds might work.”- Marvin Minsky, AI researcher
6What is Artificial Intelligence? Smart programs?Not really. Studying what is possible and underlying theories are very important.How does a slow, tiny brain (biological or electrical) perceives, understands, and manipulates a complex world?
7Studying AI Started out in 1950s The Dartmouth meeting in 1956Turned out much more difficult than anyone had imaginedCurrently encompasses a large variety of subfields,from general areas such as perception and logical reasoning tospecific tasks such as playing chess, writing poetry…bringing together philosophy, logic, computer science, cognitive science and cognitive neuroscience
8What is AI?So it’s not surprising that defining artificial intelligence (AI) is hard. In general, artificial intelligence is the field of science devoted to making computers perceive, reason, and act in ways that have, until now, been reserved for human beings. 4 types of historical definitions: acting or thinking humanly acting or thinking rationally
9Thinking Humanly: Cognitive Science How do humans think?Requires scientific theories of internal activities of the brainWhat level of abstraction? ``Knowledge'' or ``circuits''?How to validate?Bring together computational models from AI and experimental techniques from psycho-physics to model the human mind1) Predicting and testing behavior of human subjects (Cognitive Science; top-down)2) Direct identification from neurological data (Cognitive Neuroscience; bottom-up)Both approaches are now distinct from AIMost of the machinery of the human mind is not available to our conscious experience
10Thinking LogicallyLet’s give up imitating the human thinking process, but try to achieve logical thinkingLaws of formal logic to formalize the thinking processSocrates is a man; All men are mortal => Socrates is mortalDifficulties:How to take informal knowledge and state in formal terms especially when knowledge is less than 100% certainEven problems with just a few dozen facts can be prohibitive
12Acting Humanly - Turing Test UCSD Turing Page:CaptchasTests to identify humans from bots on the Internet, to deny services to webcrawlers or spammers
13Acting Humanly - Turing Test Chatterbots:One of the most complex (and entertaining!) chatter bots are at:choose complex chatterbots, choose Barry, go to downloads and then choose CGI talk (this year they dont have the online CGI talk, and the downloaded program didnt work for me)Or this one works with no downloads: The ALICE Foundation...Human: You sound pretty smartALICE: In what way do I sound like that? Human: never mind, hey, how is the weather? ALICE: Oh well thanks for trying to explain it to me anyway. You've got my full attention. Sunny. Human: where are you? ALICE: I am in Dr. Richard S. Wallace's computer in Oakland, California. Where are you? Human: i am in istanbul, do you know where it is? ALICE: Tell me a little about your life in istanbul do me know where it is.
14Acting Rationally Rational behavior: doing the right thing Rationality: ideal concept of intelligenceRational behavior: doing the right thingthat which is expected to maximize goal achievement, given the available informationReflexes do not necessarily involve thinking---e.g., blinking reflex, but they are rationalThinking should be in the service of rational actionCaveat: computational limitations make perfect rationality unachievabledesign best program for given machine resourcesWe will emphasize rational agents in this course.
15Why do we want artificial intelligence? To relieve our mental labour, just as machines relieved our physical labour last centuryIt should make the machines themselves easier to useIt might give some insight into the workings of our own minds
16History of AI 1943 McCulloch and Pitts: Artificial Neuron Model Turing's ``Computing Machinery and Intelligence'‘1950s Early AI programs, including Samuel's checkers program, Newell & Simon's Logic Theorist (proving theorems), Gelernter's Geometry Engine, Shannon and Turing writing chess programsShortage of computer times => Development of time sharing (=> DEC)Creation of LISP (McCarthy)Dartmouth meeting: ``Artificial Intelligence'' coinedRobinson's complete algorithm for logical reasoning resolution method1960s Early development of knowledge-based systems; Minsky’s microworlds (blocks as home to various projects: vision, planning, nat. Lang. Understanding, ...)ANALOGY program (what is this figure most similar to?)Algebra STUDENT program (one egg costs ... How much does twenty eggs cost?)
17History of AI 1966--74 Dose of Reality Very little domain knowledge: Swithing from one domain to another, the programs failed miserablyAI discovers computational complexityEarly programs worked by representing the basic facts and trying out a series of steps to solve the problem which was only tractable within micro worlds; NP-completeness showed that scaling up to larger problems was not always viableNeural network research almost disappears
18History of AI 1980--88 Expert systems industry booms After all, they work, even if in limited domainsAn expert system is a software designed to replicate the decision-making process of a human expert, within a narrow topic. At the heart of every expert system is a knowledge base representing ideas from the specific field of expertiseA knowledge-based system derives knowledge from experts as well as other sources like government regulations, statistical databases, company guidelines, etc.In practice, the terms expert system and knowledge-based system are often used interchangeablyWhile a database contains only facts, a knowledge base also contains a system of if-then rules for determining and changing the relationships between those facts
19Digression: Expert Systems Expert systems are widely used in many different areas:American Express uses one to automate checking for fraud and misuses of its no-limit credit card. This has to be done in 90 secs while the customer waits, and the cost of an error can be highDENDRAL, an expert system that examines the spectroscopic analysis of an unknown chemical compound and predicts its molecular structureDEC’s XCON configures complex computer systems. It reportedly does the work of > 300 human experts, with fewer mistakesPIERS, an expert system used to diagnose blood samples in St Vincent Hospital, Sydney...Current success is in reasonably narrow topics, eg mineral prospecting, medical diagnoses, air traffic control, etc. But the real goal is to build something that has a broad understanding of the world - which requires common sense
20History of AI 1988--93 Expert systems industry start losing its power Successful only in very narrow domainsBuilding a successful expert system is much more than simply buying a reasoning system and filling it with rulesNeural networks return to popularityWith strengthened foundations, AI becomes hot again - resurgence of probabilistic and decision-theoretic methods, genetic algorithms, belief networks,...
21Current State Which of the following can be done at present!? Play a decent game of table tennisDrive along a curving mountain roadDrive in the center of IstanbulPlay a decent game of bridgeDiscover and prove a new mathematical theoremWrite an intentionally funny storyGive competent legal advice in a specialized area of lawTranslate spoken English into spoken Swedish in real time
22Current State Which of the following can be done at present!? Play a decent game of table tennisDrive along a curving mountain roadDrive in the center of IstanbulPlay a decent game of bridgeDiscover and prove a new mathematical theoremWrite an intentionally funny storyGive competent legal advice in a specialized area of lawTranslate spoken English into spoken Swedish in real time
23Current StateLimited domain speech/natural language understanding programsChess playing programs (machines)Medical expert systems challenging doctors...
24Artificial Intelligence and the Humans What does the advent of the intelligent machine mean for human beings?Are artificial intelligences just extensions of human intelligence?When AARON creates a drawing, who is the artist, Cohen or AARON?When expert systems make decisions, who is responsible? the user, the programmer, the software company, or somebody else?Should we think of intelligent machines as some new sort of life, one with which we must now share the world?Could AIs be our evolutionary successors?How will AI affect our own sense of self?AI is beginning to force us to confront these hard philosphical questions…
25Syllabus In short (AIMA 3rd ed.) Introduction: Problem Solving In short (AIMA 3rd ed.)Introduction:Chapters 1-2Problem SolvingChapters 3-6Knowledge and ReasoningChapters 7-9Planning:Skipped with just a brief overviewUncertain Knowledge and ReasoningChapters 13,14,16; skip 15 and 17Learningoverview + one classification method (decision trees)Communicating, Perceiving, Actingoverview + one problem in computer visionConclusions
26Seeing, Hearing and Understanding An intelligent computer must be able to recognize its surrounding environment and adapt to changes in it. To do this it must be able to “see” and “hear” what’s going onComputer vision is the capability of a computer to mimic the ways that human brains process and interpret light waves to produce a model of reality. Though it’s very easy for people to do that, it’s very difficult for computers to do build and update their models
27Hearing, Seeing and Understanding The ability of a computer to recognize the speech of a user and take action based on the words spoken is called speech recognition or voice recognition. The computer matches spoken words against stored speech patterns to determine what was saidNatural language processing is the ability of a computer to build knowledge representations corresponding to the meaning in sentences made up of recognized words. This is very difficult, because human language is full of ambiguities, vagueness and depends on a lot of commonsense knowledge of the world
28Machine LearningWe’ve seen how difficult collecting and maintaining knowledge is. If there was a lot, it could be impossible to do by handIt would help if the machine could build up its own knowledge from experiences in the world, like a child learning how to walk. The ability of the machine to discover knowledge from observations of the world is called machine learningFor example, some of the best game-playing programs learn from past experiences. If a move pays off, a learning program is more likely to use that (or similar moves) in future games. If a move results in a loss, the program will remember to avoid similar moves
29Robots - AI EmbodiedJapanese companies such as Honda, Fujitsu and Sony are racing to develop humanoidsThe Honda ASIMO (right) is a good exampleImproved walking stability over earlier modelsSmaller size is about marketing - and Robocup eligibilityIntelligence quite limited - some commands sent by remote controlSimple voice recognition functions trigger pre-programmed actionsWill cost about the same a luxury car