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An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence Lecture VI: Adversarial Search (Games) Ramin Halavati In which we examine problems that arise when we try to plan ahead in a world were other agents are playing against us.

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Overview

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Primary Assumptions “Game” in AI: –A multi-agent, non-cooperative environment –Zero Sum Result. –Turn Taking. –Deterministic. –Two Player Real Problems vs. Toy Problems: –Chess: b=35, d = 100 Tree Size: ~ –Go: b=1000 (!) –Time Limit / Unpredictable Opponent

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Game tree (2-player, deterministic, turns)

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Minimax Algorithm

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Minimax algorithm

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Properties of minimax Complete? Yes (if tree is finite) Optimal? Yes (against an optimal opponent) Time complexity? O(b m ) Space complexity? O(bm) (depth-first exploration) For chess, b ≈ 35, m ≈100 for "reasonable" games exact solution completely infeasible

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α-β pruning example

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13 Properties of α-β Pruning does not affect final result Good move ordering improves effectiveness of pruning With "perfect ordering," time complexity = O(b m/2 ) doubles depth of search A simple example of the value of reasoning about which computations are relevant (a form of metareasoning)

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The α-β algorithm

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Resource limits Suppose we have 100 secs, explore 10 4 nodes/sec 10 6 nodes per move Standard approach: cutoff test: e.g., depth limit (perhaps add quiescence search) evaluation function = estimated desirability of position

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Evaluation functions For chess, typically linear weighted sum of features Eval(s) = w 1 f 1 (s) + w 2 f 2 (s) + … + w n f n (s) e.g., w 1 = 9 with f 1 (s) = (number of white queens) – (number of black queens), etc.

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Cutting off search MinimaxCutoff is identical to MinimaxValue except 1.Terminal? is replaced by Cutoff? 2.Utility is replaced by Eval Does it work in practice? b m = 10 6, b=35 m=4 4-ply lookahead is a hopeless chess player! –4-ply ≈ human novice –8-ply ≈ typical PC, human master –12-ply ≈ Deep Blue, Kasparov

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Deterministic games in practice Checkers: Chinook ended 40-year-reign of human world champion Marion Tinsley in Used a precomputed endgame database defining perfect play for all positions involving 8 or fewer pieces on the board, a total of 444 billion positions. Chess: Deep Blue defeated human world champion Garry Kasparov in a six-game match in Deep Blue searches 200 million positions per second, uses very sophisticated evaluation, and undisclosed methods for extending some lines of search up to 40 ply. Othello: human champions refuse to compete against computers, who are too good. Go: human champions refuse to compete against computers, who are too bad. In go, b > 300, so most programs use pattern knowledge bases to suggest plausible moves.

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Summary Games are fun to work on! They illustrate several important points about AI perfection is unattainable must approximate good idea to think about what to think about

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Exercise Excercise 6.16 Send to Subject: AIEX-C616

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Project Proposals: Choose a gamin, compose a group of rival agents, implement agents to compete. 1st Choice: Backgammon (Takhteh Nard) - refer to Mr.Esfandiar's call for participants. 2nd Choice: Choose a board game such as DOOZ, AVALANGE, etc. 3rd Choice: A card game, such as HOKM or BiDel.

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Essay Proposals 1-What was the "King and Rock vs. King" story, stated in page 186 of book. 2-What are other general puropose heuristics such as null-move? 3-What is B* algorithm? (See Page 188, for clue) 4-What is MGSS* algorithm? (See Page 188, for clue) 5-What is SSS* algorithm? (See Page 188, for clue) 6-What is Alpha-Beta pruning with probability? (See Page 189, for clue)

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