Agents An agent is anything that can be viewed as perceiving its environment through sensors and acting upon that environment through actuators Human agent: –Eyes, Ears, and other organs for Sensors; –Hands, Legs, Mouth, and other body parts for Actuators. Robotic agent: –Cameras and Infrared range finders for Sensors; –Various Motors for Actuators.
Agents and Environments The agent function f maps from percept histories P* to actions A : [f: P* A ] The agent program runs on the physical architecture to produce A. agent = architecture + program
Vacuum-cleaner world Percepts: location and contents, [A, Dirty] Actions: Left, Right, Suck, NoOp Function : (agent keeps Right and Left if both rooms are clean)
Rational agents An agent should strive to "do the right thing", based on what it can perceive and the actions it can perform. The right action is the one that will cause the agent to be most successful. Performance measure: An objective criterion for success of an agent's behavior. –EX: Performance measure of a vacuum-cleaner agent: - amount of dirt cleaned up, - amount of time taken, - amount of electricity consumed, - amount of noise generated, etc.
Rational agents Rational Agent: For each possible percept sequence, a rational agent should select an action that is expected to maximize its performance measure, given some built-in knowledge the agent has about the environment. The performance measure that defines the criterion of success: – The agent’s percept sequence to data. – The agent’s prior knowledge of the environment. – The actions that the agent can perform.
Rational agents Is a vacuum-agent rational? (Depends!) Performance measure – amount of dirt cleaned up, – amount of time taken, – amount of electricity consumed, – amount of noise generated, etc.. A priori بداهة – Geography of the environment is known (two squares, A is on left and B is on right, etc.). – Perception is trustable (no illusion وهم). – Sucking cleans the current square.
Rational agents Actions – Left, right, suck. Current percept – [location, dirt] Possible extensions – The agent have partial memory (reasoning percept histories). – The geography of the environment is unknown. – The agent cannot percept its current location. – Agent can learn from experience.
Rational agents Rationality is distinct from omniscience (all- knowing with infinite knowledge) معرفة غير محدودة Agents can perform actions in order to modify future percepts so as to obtain useful information (information gathering, exploration). An agent is autonomous مستقل بذاته if its behavior is determined by its own experience (with ability to learn and adapt).
Specify the setting for intelligent agent design: PEAS Description PEAS: P : Performance measure E : Environment A : Actuators S : Sensors Must first specify the settings for intelligent agent design.
PEAS Agent: Interactive English tutor Performance measure: Maximize student's score on test Environment: Set of students Sensors: Keyboard Actuators: Screen display (exercises, suggestions, corrections)
PEAS Agent: Part-picking robot Performance measure: Percentage of parts in correct bins صناديق Environment: Conveyor belt with parts, bins Sensors: Camera, joint angle sensors Actuators: Jointed arm and hand
Environment types Fully observable (vs. partially observable): An agent's sensors give it access to the complete state of the environment at each point in time. – Playing chess? Fully. – Medical diagnosis? Partially. – Taxi driving? Partially.
Environment types Deterministic (vs. stochastic) قطعي/محدد: The next state of the environment is completely determined by the current state and the action executed by the agent. – Medical diagnosis? Stochastic. – Battle field ميدان المعركة? Stochastic. – E-shopping? Deterministic. – E-auction? Stochastic. – Playing chess? Strategic. Strategic : If the environment is deterministic except for the actions of other agents.
Environment types Episodic (vs. sequential) سببي / حدثي : An agent’s action depends only on an “episode” (snapshot) of the environment, i.e. history independent. – Chess? Sequential. – Web search? Episodic.
Environment types Static (vs. dynamic): The environment does not change over time. – Playing crossword puzzle كلمات متقاطعة? Static. – Playing soccer? Dynamic. – Battle field? Dynamic.
Environment types Discrete (vs. continuous): A limited number of distinct, clearly defined percepts and actions. – Playing chess? Discrete. – Taxi driving? Continuous
Environment types Single agent (vs. multi-agent): An agent operating by itself in an environment. – Crossword puzzle? Single – Playing chess? Multi – Taxi driving? Multi
Environment types Chess with Chess without Taxi drivinga clock Fully observableYesYesNo DeterministicStrategicStrategicNo Episodic NoNoNo Static SemiYes No DiscreteYes YesNo Single agentNoNoNo The environment type largely determines the agent design The real world is (of course) partially observable, stochastic, sequential, dynamic, continuous, multi-agent
Relationship between Agents Collaborative vs. Competitive – Playing chess? Competitive. – Taxi driving? C ooperative, Trustworthy جدير بالثقة vs. Suspicious مشبوه Same capabilities or different Share information or not Delegate responsibility يفوض المسؤلية or not
Agent functions and programs An agent is completely specified by the agent function mapping percept sequences to actions One agent function (or a small equivalence class) is rational Aim: find a way to implement the rational agent function concisely بايجاز
Agent types Table-lookup agent – Huge table. – Take a long time to build the table. – No autonomy. – Even with learning, need a long time to learn the table entries.
Agent types Four basic types in order of increasing generality: Simple reflex agents Model-based reflex agents Goal-based agents Utility-based agents
Simple reflex agents
Model-based reflex agents
Technologies of Software Agents Machine learning Information retrieval Agent communication Agent coordination Agent negotiation Natural language understanding Distributed objects