Presentation on theme: "Game Design Patterns: The Component Framework"— Presentation transcript:
1 Game Design Patterns: The Component Framework Jussi Holopainen, Nokia Research CenterStaffan Björk, Interactive Institute
2 Component Framework An activity-based model of game interaction The “medium” patterns occur inIncludes many of traditional concepts used to describe gamesPlayer, element, rule, goal, etc.Lays out the details of how games are constructedDescribe, analyze and compare gamesGame statePlaying the game is making changes in the game state!
4 Component Categories Holistic Boundary Temporal Structural Determine how the activity of playing the game is dividedBoundaryLimit the player activities by allowing certain actions and making some activities more rewardingTemporalDescribe the flow of the game play and define the changes in the game stateStructuralDefine the parts of the game which are manipulated by the players and the game system
5 Holistic How the activity of playing the game is divided Game Instance: whole lifetime of the gameGame Session: the whole activity of a player playing one gamePlay Session: a player actively playing the gameExtra-game: activities related to gameSet-up/down: preparatory and end game activities
6 Game Instance Setting up the game All the actions of all the players participating in the gameEnding the game and determination of the final outcomeActivities required to restore the game state after playing the game
7 Game Instance: Chess Two players decide to play Chess Beginning of a game instance of ChessSetting up the initial board and determining who is playing which sideThe actions of both of the playersDetermining the outcome and possible impact outside this game instance (tournament etc.)Restoring the game statePlayers put the board and pieces away
8 Game SessionComplete activity of one player participating in a game instancePlayer specificChess game instance has two game sessionsUsually game instance and game session coincide in time
9 Game Session: Examples Asteroids:Player puts in coins: set-upPlays the game until loses all lives: play sessionEnters initials to the high-score list: set-downMassively Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game (EverQuest etc.)Player creates a character: set-upLogs in to play every now and then: several play sessionsFinally decides to stop playing the game and removes the character: set-down
10 Play SessionThe length of time one player is actively playing the gameOne game session can consist of many play sessionsBut in many games game and play sessions coincidePlay session consists of all the player actions during the sessionCan be described as a sequence of changes in modes of play
11 Play Session: Examples Asteroids:The same as the game session for one playerRPG and adventure games:Player can save the progress, close the game and come back laterMany player controlled play sessionsPlay-by-mail Chess:Player opens the envelopeMakes his move by writing it on a piece of paperSends the move sheet to the other player
12 Set-up Session Game Instance: Game Session Play Session Set-up the initial game stateInvite playersAllow the game to startGame SessionThe player or the facilitator configures the initial starting position in the gameThe player registers to the gamePlay SessionPrepare the play sessionLog in the game, select profile etc.
13 Set-down Session Game Instance: Game Session Play Session Declare that the game has endedDetermine the final outcomeReturn the initial game state if need beUsually the facilitator takes care of thisGame SessionThe player’s initial state restored or removed altogetherTake care of possible meta-game effectsPlay SessionSave the current state for further play sessions… or end the game session
14 Extra-gameAll activities concerning the game but which do not have a direct effect on the game state, players’ strategies of a single game instance or setting up the gameModifications to the gameSkins in SimsGame modsCreate new games!Acquiring equipment or game elementsBuying a booster pack for Magic: the Gathering
15 Boundary ComponentsLimit the player activities by allowing certain actions and making some activities more rewarding.Rules: dictate how everything works!Modes of Play: different phases of the gameGoals and subgoals: motivation for playing the game in certain ways
16 Rules Limit player actions Describe and lay out the boundaries of the gameGovern how the other components of the framework are instantiatedMeta-componentsStatic or dynamicChess vs. NomicExplicit or implicitRules explicitly known to the playerRules “hidden” in the game system
17 Modes of Play Different phases or sections of the game where Actions are different, orGoals are different, orInterface is different, orGame Time is different, orPlayers are differentChanges between modes governed by rulesModes can have sub-modes
18 Modes of Play: Examples Taking turns in ChessWhile the other player makes his move the player cannot move his piecesInventory modeMany adventure and RPG computer games have a different mode for manipulating the inventoryDifferent phases in board gamesDiplomacy has diplomatic, action and turn resolution phasesEating the power pill in Pac-ManPossible to hunt the ghosts!
19 Goals and subgoals Define the game states the player tries to achieve Motivation for playing the gameAchievementAlmost always nested hierarchies or networksSubgoals of subgoals of subgoals etc.Can be player defined during the playSimCity and Sims
20 Goals and subgoals: Examples Pac-ManGet as high score as possibleComplete the levelEat a dotEat a power pillEat as many ghosts as possible during the effect of the pill
21 Temporal ComponentsDescribe the flow of the game play and define the changes in the game stateActions: what the player can doEvents: what are the game state changesClosures: meaningful game state changesEnd conditions: determine changes of mode of play and closuresEvaluation functions: determine the outcome of an end condition
22 Actions What the player can do to change the game state Explicit or implicitDirectly available through controller or the UI“Hidden” in the game systemText adventuresThe way to change the game stateNot the actual physical movement of pressing the buttonRelated to the interface
23 Actions: Examples Pac-Man Asteroids Space invaders Movement up, down, left and right using the joystickAsteroidsSteer left or rightUse the rocket to move the shipShoot bulletsSpace invadersMove left or rightShoot a bullet
24 Events Changes in the game state Consequences of the actions Perceivable to the playersChange of mode of play, closuresConsequences of the actionsOwn actionsOther player actionsGame system generatedComputer controlled opponentsGravitation, inertia and other automatic events
25 Events: Examples Pac-Man Tetris Pac-Man starts to move the direction Eats a pillThe ghosts move, regenerate etc.TetrisNew block appearsThe block starts to fall downThe block gets stuckFull rows are removedThe game ends
26 ClosuresQuantifiable and meaningful player experiences normally associated with game state changesAssociated with goalsReaching a goal (winning condition)Failing to reach a goal or losing the game (loss condition)Closures happen when playing the game, goals are part of the gameNot necessarily defined as particular game statesBorderline between first and second order game design concepts, may be player definedNormally deeply nestedSubclosures of subclosures of subclosures
27 Closures: Examples Pac-Man Eating a pill Eating a power pill Eating a ghostEating all the ghostsFinishing a levelLosing a lifeLosing all livesGetting the high scoreEtc.
28 End Conditions and Evaluation Functions End condition is a game state requirement forSwitching the mode of playCompletion of a closureEnd of a game instance, game or play sessionAlways associated with an evaluation functionTogether define win and loss conditionsEvaluation function defines what is the outcome of the end condition
29 End Conditions and Evaluation Functions: Examples Pac-ManEating a pill: Pac-Man moves over the pill -> more pointsFinishing a level: All pills eaten -> progress to next levelEtc.ChessCheck mate opponent’s king: the king cannot move -> the other player wins
30 Structural Components Define the parts of the game which are manipulated by the players and the game systemInterface: provides players information about the game state and possible actionsGame Elements: components that contain the game statePlayers: entities that try to achieve their own goals within the gameGame Facilitator: synchronizes the game stateGame Time: how game state changes relate to real time
31 Interface Provides information to the players The game stateWhat actions are availableProvides the player access to the actionsWhat the player has to physically do to perform the actionCan help to express the theme of the gameAudio-visual style
32 Interface: Examples Chess: Pac-Man The board laid out as 8X8 grids The pieces on the grids define the game stateThe player can move the piece by picking it up and and putting it downPac-ManJoystick for controlling the movement of the Pac-ManThe level is shown on the screenAudio effects related to events
33 Game ElementsPhysical and logical components that contain the game stateCan be manipulated by player actions and game eventsUsually have attribute values that define their abilitiesTypeWho controlsWhat does it look likeEtc.
34 Game Elements: Examples Elements that define the game worldChess boardThe landscape in a strategy gameThe geography of a fantasy role-playing gameElements that personify the playerPac-ManAsteroids shipPlayer’s avatar in the RPGElements that are controlled by the playerUnits in a strategy gameChess pieces
35 PlayersRepresentation of entities that are trying to achieve the goals in the gameChange the game state through actionsCan be human players or computer controlledCan compete against each otherCan cooperate with other playersDifferent ways of analysisGhosts in Pac-Man as other playersTetris as a two player game?
36 Players: Examples Pac-Man Chess MMORPGs The player controls the yellow Pac-ManAvoids the ghostsComputer controls the ghostsTry to catch Pac-ManSimilarities to TagChessThe white and black player try to eliminate each otherMMORPGsThousands of players represented by avatars in the game world
37 Facilitator Takes care of setting up the game Synchronizes the game state and maintains the game timeCan be players themselvesChildren gamesUltimate arbitrator of disputes between the players and the game system
38 Facilitator: Examples TagThe players define the boundariesThe players keep track who is “it”Pac-ManThe computer inside the arcade machineTable-top RPGsThe game master
39 Game TimeHow the changes in the game state (the progress of game) relates to real timeCan be discreteCan be continuousCan be different for different modes of playCan have pausesEtc.
40 Game Time: Examples Tag: Chess: The main mode of play has direct mapping between game time and real timePauses and shifts of game time possibleChess:The changes in game state happen in discrete steps when the players make their turnsThe turn frequency can vary from seconds to months and can be variable
41 Framework: Exercise In small groups Play as many games as possible Analyze the games according to the frameworkHow different components are implemented in the gameDiscuss the analysis!Single player gameOne player is playingThe other members of the group make notes about the analysisMultiplayer gameAll play and make notes…
42 Framework: Exercise Each student selects one game Homework No duplicates allowed!HomeworkWrite a short analysis of the game based on the frameworkSimilar detail as in the Pac-Man example in the framework hand-outPrepare to do a short (max. 10 min including discussion) presentation about the analysis