Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 14 THE RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT TO CHILDREN’S MOVEMENT AND SPORT PERFORMANCE KAREN E. FRENCH Made by Wang Yan."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 14 THE RELATIONSHIP OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT TO CHILDREN’S MOVEMENT AND SPORT PERFORMANCE KAREN E. FRENCH Made by Wang Yan
§14.1 PIAGET’S STAGE THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT §14.2 DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY §14.3 DEVELOPMENT OF LONG TERM MEMORY §14.4 SUMMARY
§14.1 PIAGET’S STAGE THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT Piaget described cognitive development as a process that involved adaptations of cognitive structures through the child’s interactions with the environment. Adaptation occurred through two processes: assimilation and accommodation.
Sensorimotor Stage Begins at birth and extends until approximately 2 years old. Substage 1, reflex activity (0-1 month) involves the use of reflexes and repetition of reflexive movements.
In substage 2, (1-4months) the infant begins to display primary circular reactions. Such as thumb sucking, hand clasping, grabbing of a foot.
In the third substage, (4-8 months) infants exhibit secondary circular reactions. Secondary circular reactions involve the infant reaching out to manipulate objects discovered in the environment. Examples include the infant reaching for a ball in order to grasp it or shaking a rattle in order to hear it.
In the fourth substage, secondary schema (8-12 months) children integrate and adapt their schemes to obtain specific goals (Dworetzky, 1981). Infants develop an ability to anticipate actions or situations that may occur in the environment
In the fifth substage, tertiary circular reactions appear. Tertiary circular reactions are characterized by the infant’s discovery of new ways to produce the desired results through active experimentation.
In the last substage, the child begins to fully develop object permanence. items physically present in the environment mental symbols or images
Preoperational Stage( 2~7years) One way thinking can be organized is by forming concepts. Syncretic reasoning transductive reasoning animistic thinking
Concrete Operations Conservation reverse actions mentally Three other logical operations seriation classification numeration
Formal operations 1) capable of dealing with the logic of combinations, 2) able to use abstract concepts to make thought more flexible, 3) able to deal with the hypothetical as well as the real (Piaget & Inhelder, 1969).
§14.2 DEVELOPMENT OF MEMORY Memory affects an individual’s performance and learning of motor skills. Three explanations for the potential sources of deficits in children’s memory available mental capacity the function of working memory control processes long term memory
Working Memory Control Processes Encoding Labeling Rehearsal Grouping and recoding Search processes Retrieval processes
Suggestions for Teachers and Coaches Task presentation short and concise select 3 to 4 short verbal labels pay attention to verbal cues provide a visual demonstration
Remembering movement sequences using principles of working memory present verbal labels Prompt the children to group or organize the verbal labels of the movements. Encourage children to rehearse the verbal labels within each group.
§14.3 DEVELOPMENT OF LONG TERM MEMORY One of the first studies to clearly show the impact of knowledge on cognitive performance was conducted by Chase and Simon (1973). Chess masters and beginning chess players were asked recall game structured (common positions in game) and random positions of chess pieces on a chess board.
The chess masters could recall game structured chess positions with much great accuracy than beginning chess players. The recall of chess pieces by chess masters was similar to novices when recalling randomly ordered chess positions.
Chi (1978) replicated the Chase and Simon study. The children who possessed greater knowledge of chess than the adults and exhibited superior recall performance.
Youth experts have not been shown to exhibit performance on sport related cognitive tasks equal to adult sport experts. Youth experts can perform better than adult novices and similar age peers who possess less sport related knowledge.
Decision making in sports and games Response selection (decision making) and response execution (skill execution) are both important components of performance in a variety of sports. Increases in sport related knowledge have the potential to positively improve children’s ability to make accurate decisions during game play.
The Knowledge Base The knowledge base contains networks of verbal concepts and visual images. Goal concepts Condition concepts Motor concepts Regulatory concepts Do concepts
Sport Knowledge Structures A series of studies in tennis and baseball have been conducted to describe changes in knowledge structures used during sport performance or sport problem solving at differing ages and levels of expertise.
Three levels of analysis. micro level second level (action plans or solutions ) macro level
Developmental changes in knowledge structures Novices of all ages access many irrelevant or inappropriate condition concepts and often fail to access important game conditions. The novice may also be so overwhelmed with the amount of information in the environment that they are unable to attend to some of the information that is critical.
Both child and adult novices rarely planned actions in advance. Some novices illustrated their approach with statements. With increasing age, players accessed more relevant concepts. Players also increasingly developed sport specific strategies to enhance decision making processes.
Skill constrains tactical development One of the patterns identified in all these studies has been the ability to execute the motor skill constrains response selection. Ideally, we want players to be able to develop knowledge structures that are tactically advanced and provide players with the necessary motor skills to use the advanced tactics.
Implications for Instruction The body of research to date shows that sophisticated thought processes associated with decision making in sport do not develop without extensive practice of tactics over long periods of time, much longer than typical units of sport instruction in physical education classes.
Instructional approaches Design practice activities that force individuals to make decisions in the context of game competition. Use verbal labels for important game conditions and actions when introducing offensive and defensive tactics. Reward and reinforce good decision making, not just good skill execution. Practice all decision choices hundreds of times.
During practice ask players what they are thinking. Have players develop profiles of an opponent after a period of play or after watching a videotape of an opponent. Establish a mentoring program
§14.4 SUMMARY Changes in cognitive development have a large impact on the individual’s ability to perform and learn motor skills. Piaget (1970) proposed that children’s cognitive abilities proceeded through a series of four stages (sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operations) in a universal and invariant order.