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Created by Mr. Johnson Fischer vs. Spassky An Episode of the Cold War An Episode of the Cold War.

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Presentation on theme: "Created by Mr. Johnson Fischer vs. Spassky An Episode of the Cold War An Episode of the Cold War."— Presentation transcript:

1 Created by Mr. Johnson Fischer vs. Spassky An Episode of the Cold War An Episode of the Cold War

2 Objective Describe the effects of the Cold War on economic, political and social life in America

3 Chess in the Soviet Union Chess as a “socialist sport”Chess as a “socialist sport” “We must organize shock brigades of chess players and immediately begin fulfilling the five-year plan for chess.” –Nikolai Krylenko, head of Chess Section Housing and salaries for the best playersHousing and salaries for the best players –1,000 registered players in 1923 –3 million by 1965

4 World Champs – “Soviet Chess Machine” Mikhail Botvinnik ( ) Vassily Smyslov ( ) Mikhail Botvinnik ( ) Mikhail Tal ( ) Mikhail Botvinnik ( ) Tigran Petrosian ( ) Boris Spassky (1969) Can anyone beat them?

5 Child Prodigy – Bobby Fischer Born 1943Born 1943 Chicago, IllinoisChicago, Illinois Youngest U.S. Junior Chess champ (age 14)Youngest U.S. Junior Chess champ (age 14) VideoVideo –Simultaneous demonstration against 16 opponents Simultaneous demonstration against 16 opponentsSimultaneous demonstration against 16 opponents

6 Child Prodigy – Boris Spassky Born 1937Born 1937 Survived German siege of LeningradSurvived German siege of Leningrad Defeated Botvinnik at the age of 10 in a simultaneous demonstrationDefeated Botvinnik at the age of 10 in a simultaneous demonstration Became world champ in 1969Became world champ in 1969 Record against Fischer:Record against Fischer: –3 wins –0 losses –2 draws

7 Road to the World Championship Fischer 6 Taimanov 0 Larsen 5.5 Uhlmann 3.5 Korchnoi 5.5 Geller 2.5 Petrosian 4 Hubner 3 Fischer 6 Larsen 0 Korchnoi 4.5 Petrosian 5.5 Fischer 6.5 Petrosian 2.5 Fischer – Spassky 1972 Championship Unprecedented: Five draws, no losses against the best in the world

8 1972 World Chess Championship Reykjavik, Iceland

9 Reykjavik, IcelandReykjavik, Iceland –Neutral nation Cold War confrontationCold War confrontation –No American has ever held the title –Soviet pride at stake 12 points needed to win12 points needed to win –Win = 1 point –Draw =.5 points –Loss = 0 points “Match of the Century”

10 Superpowersvs.

11 SuperpowersGeographicPolitical CulturalEconomic MilitaryPopulation Superpower

12 Intellectual & Scientific Competition

13 Easing of tensionsEasing of tensions Nuclear Non- Proliferation TreatyNuclear Non- Proliferation Treaty Nixon visits ChinaNixon visits China Sports DiplomacySports Diplomacy –Ping-Pong (China) –Chess (Soviet Union) Cold War Context – Détente

14 Missed opening ceremonyMissed opening ceremony Fischer’s demandsFischer’s demands –More prize money –Adjusted lighting –30% of gate & TV revenues… –…Removal of TV cameras –“Psychological warfare”? British millionaire offers ₤ 50,000 for Fischer to competeBritish millionaire offers ₤ 50,000 for Fischer to compete Fischer’s Antics

15 Games 1 & 2 Match Begins, Spassky Wins

16 Blood in the Back Room Game 3 Small table tennis roomSmall table tennis room No audienceNo audience “Psychic bloodletting”“Psychic bloodletting”

17 Fischer Smashes Spassky Games 4-20

18 Fischer Smashes Spassky More Fischer anticsMore Fischer antics –Late to games –Rocking in his seat –Walking away from the table –Complaints about “defects” in the board –Piercing stare After 20 gamesAfter 20 games –Fischer – 11.5 –Spassky – 8

19 Fischer’s Stare

20 Soviet accusationsSoviet accusations –Fischer’s rude behavior –Use of toxic chemicals to poison Spassky Embarassment & paranoia of SovietsEmbarassment & paranoia of Soviets “Extra-Chess Means”

21 Game 21Game 21 –Spassky resigns after 10 moves Award ceremonyAward ceremony –Spassky refuses to attend –Fischer crowned as first American champ A New World Champion

22 The Aftermath

23 Remained among top players in the world for another decadeRemained among top players in the world for another decade Emigrated to France and became a French citizenEmigrated to France and became a French citizen Spassky’s Later Career

24 Never played another pro tournamentNever played another pro tournament Forfeited title to Anatoly Karpov in 1975Forfeited title to Anatoly Karpov in 1975 Anti-Semitism & anti- AmericanismAnti-Semitism & anti- Americanism Reclusive lifeReclusive life –Philippines –Japan –Iceland Fischer’s Life in PicturesFischer’s Life in PicturesFischer’s Life in PicturesFischer’s Life in Pictures Died in 2008Died in 2008 Fischer’s Decline

25 Fischer wins again, despite 20 years of professional inactivity “Revenge Match of the Century” – 1992

26 Russians Rule Again… Anatoly Karpov ( ) Garry Kasparov ( ) Vladimir Kramnik (2000-Present)

27 Kasparov vs. Deep Blue 1997 – “Brute force” parallel processing defeats best player in the world for first time in a tournament

28 Kasparov is a vocal opponent of Russian president Vladimir PutinKasparov is a vocal opponent of Russian president Vladimir Putin Arrested in April 2007 protestArrested in April 2007 protest Kasparov vs. Putin

29 Kramnik vs. Deep Fritz Match Fritz wins, 4-2 Computers are now clearly superior

30 Will there ever be another world champion from the United States? “Searching for Bobby Fischer”

31 Sources David Edmonds and John Eidinov, Bobby Fischer Goes to War. HarperCollins (2004)David Edmonds and John Eidinov, Bobby Fischer Goes to War. HarperCollins (2004) Bobby Fischer Unofficial HomepageBobby Fischer Unofficial HomepageBobby Fischer Unofficial HomepageBobby Fischer Unofficial Homepage A Mystery Wrapped in an EnigmaA Mystery Wrapped in an EnigmaA Mystery Wrapped in an EnigmaA Mystery Wrapped in an Enigma Wikipedia: Bobby FischerWikipedia: Bobby FischerWikipedia: Bobby FischerWikipedia: Bobby Fischer Wikipedia: Boris SpasskyWikipedia: Boris SpasskyWikipedia: Boris SpasskyWikipedia: Boris Spassky Wikipedia: World Chess Championship 1972Wikipedia: World Chess Championship 1972Wikipedia: World Chess Championship 1972Wikipedia: World Chess Championship 1972 Chess Organizations U.S. Chess FederationU.S. Chess FederationU.S. Chess FederationU.S. Chess Federation Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE)Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE)Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE)Fédération Internationale des Échecs (FIDE) Sources & Links Learning the Basics Patrick Wolff, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Chess. Alpha (1997)Patrick Wolff, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Chess. Alpha (1997) Wikipedia: ChessWikipedia: ChessWikipedia: ChessWikipedia: Chess FIDE Handbook: Laws of ChessFIDE Handbook: Laws of ChessFIDE Handbook: Laws of ChessFIDE Handbook: Laws of Chess Chess Is FunChess Is FunChess Is FunChess Is Fun Wikipedia: Algebraic Chess NotationWikipedia: Algebraic Chess NotationWikipedia: Algebraic Chess NotationWikipedia: Algebraic Chess Notation Play Online Chess.netChess.netChess.net Free Internet Chess ServerFree Internet Chess ServerFree Internet Chess ServerFree Internet Chess Server Yahoo! ChessYahoo! ChessYahoo! ChessYahoo! Chess Thinking Machine 4Thinking Machine 4Thinking Machine 4Thinking Machine 4

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