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1 Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Performance and Aerodynamic Loads on HAWT Blade AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory, Seoul National University Jiwoong Park, Hyungki Shin, Hogeon Kim, Soogab Lee

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 2 Contents Introduction Numerical Method Experimental Method Results & Analysis Concluding Remarks

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 3 Introduction Free Wake Analysis Wind Tunnel Test Analysis & Validation FVE Wake Model Curved vortex NREL TEST SNU TEST

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 4 Vortex wake model ‘engineering models’ based on vortex methods solved velocity potential expressed by Laplace Eqn. application of Biot-Savart law Free wake model or prescribed wake model currently proper model to solve aerodynamic loading added 3-d adjustment at stall region Numerical models

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 5 Vortex sheet trailing from the interval (r a,r b ) is replaced by a single vortex filament of constant strength Circulation Free Wake model CVC (Constant Vorticity Contour) Wake Structure Ref. NASA Contractor Report

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 6 before vortex filaments hit the tower vortex filaments strike against the tower separated into vortex ring and horse-shoe vortices Free Wake Model Finite Vortex Element Free wake model Schematic of FVE

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 7 Free Wake model NREL test modelFVE free wake model

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 8 STALL DELAY MODEL Corrigan Stall delay model based on a shape function and local solidity derived through correlation with prop-rotor and helicopter test Delayed Stall Angle Shape function Du & Selig Stall delay model based on the analysis of three- dimensional integral laminar boundary layer equations Corrected Aerodynamic Coefficient

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 9 Flow Chart pre-processor pre-processorMain-processor post-processor post-processor input geometry & operating condition Calculate axial & radial induction factor by BEMT to apply initial downwash Calculate initial circulation distribution & wake geometry Calculate effective angle of attack at each blade section Apply stall delay model to 2d table Calculate blade loading based on airfoil data Calculate blade loading based on circulation strength Apply 2d drag data to blade loading Output result data Effective AOA > 2D stall AOA Convergence criterion satisfied? Calculate velocity field Calculate circulation distribution Regenerate wake release point based on new circulation distribution Loop all azimuth angle move free wake & check wake-tower interaction NOYES NO

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 10 Reynolds no. 700,000~3,300,000 Wind Turbine Stall regulated type Stall regulated type 2 Blades type 2 Blades type Blade Radius : 5.03m Blade Radius : 5.03m Measurement Shaft Torque Shaft Torque Root Bending Moment Root Bending Moment Blade Surface Pressure Blade Surface Pressure NREL Wind Tunnel Test NASA AMES WIND TUNNEL Test section : 25m 36m

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 11 SNU Wind Tunnel Test m Reynolds no. 70,000~130,000 Wind Turbine 1:50 Scale model of 750kW WT 3 Blades type 3 Blades type Blade Radius : 0.53m Blade Radius : 0.53m Measurement Shaft Torque Shaft Torque Velocity fluctuation by Hot-wire Velocity fluctuation by Hot-wire KAFA WIND TUNNEL Test section : 2.45m 3.5m

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 12 Wake Analysis

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 13 Wake Analysis Tip vortex movement Tip Vortex Measurement by Hot Wire Probe Butterworth 5th order filter Average of 3 Revolution Raw dataFiltered data Ref. TU-Delft wind tunnel test

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 14 r/R time V Wake Analysis Tip Vortex Measurement by Hot Wire Probe Measurement points Tip vortex location dV r/ R x/ R Tip vortex Trajectory

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 15 Wake Analysis SNU model FVE Free wake vs measured trajectory Validation of FVE Free Wake model Measurement data of SNU modelFVE free wake geometry

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 16 13m/s, TSR=6.0 13m/s, TSR=6.5 Wake Analysis Wind speed : 13m/s Validation of FVE Free Wake model 13m/s, TSR=6.0, Yaw 10 deg. Yawed flow case(10deg)Wake geometry( TSR = 6.5, 6.0 )

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 17 Wake Analysis Wind speed = 13m/sWind speed = 15m/s SNU model FVE Free wake VS measured data Tip Vortex Pitch Angle

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 18 Load Analysis (Head-on Flow Case) Load Analysis (Head-on Flow Case)

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 19 Comparison of predictions to NREL measurement data FVE Wake Model 13m/s, TSR=3.0 Wake Geometry and Normal force distribution of NREL BLADE Wake geometry Circulation and Normal force distribution

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 20 Comparison of predictions to NREL measurement data FVE Free wake model apply stall delay model Shaft Torque wind speed (m/s) Torque (Nm) NREL free wake with 2d table free wake with Corrigan stall delay model free wake with Du & Selig stall delay model

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 21 Comparison of predictions to NREL measurement data Normal Force Coefficient

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 22 Comparison of predictions to SNU measurement data Curved Vortex vs FVE Wake Model 14 m/s, TSR=5.5 Wake Geometry & Cn distribution of SNU BLADE Curved vortex FVE Free Wake Wake GeometryCn distributions

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 23 Comparison of predictions to SNU measurement data Curved Vortex vs FVE Wake Model 14 m/s, TSR=5.5 Shaft Torque Comparison Shaft Torque Distribution

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 24 Load Analysis (Yawed Flow Case) Load Analysis (Yawed Flow Case)

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 25 Comparison of predictions to NREL measurement data Curved Vortex vs FVE Wake Model 15 m/s, TSR=2.6 Yaw angle : 30 degree Wake Geometry of NREL BLADE Curved vortexFVE Free Wake

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 26 Comparison of predictions to NREL measurement data r/R = 0.3 r/R = 0.47 15 m/s, TSR=2.6 Yaw angle : 30 degree Normal Force Coefficient distribution r/R = 0.63 r/R = 0.80

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 27 Comparison of predictions to SNU measurement data Curved Vortex vs FVE Wake Model 14 m/s, TSR=5.5 Yaw angle : 10 degree Curved vortex FVE Free Wake Wake Geometry & Cn distribution of SNU BLADE Curved Vortex vs FVE Wake Model 14 m/s, TSR=5.5 Yaw angle : 30 degree FVE Free WakeCurved vortex

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 28 Comparison of predictions to SNU measurement data SNU Model Yawed Flow TSR=5.5 Shaft Torque Comparison

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AeroAcoustics & Noise Control Laboratory 29 Concluding Remarks FVE free wake model is devised and validated Wake shape shows good agreement with measured geometry Wake Analysis Load Analysis Validated by NREL and SNU model Importance of the Wake-Tower interaction Effectiveness of FVE free wake model Future work Refine free-wake model Dynamic stall delay model Aero-elastic model Noise prediction model

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