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Temperament.

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1 Temperament

2 Today’s overview What is temperament?
Describe your temperament using Thomas/Chess, Fox/Henderson or Caspi types What is goodness-of-fit (give examples)? What are pros and cons of laboratory behavioral and parent report measures of temperament? What are three types of infants distinguished by Fox/Henderson and how do they develop? Reference the DVD illustrating these infants from class. Do you favor a person-centered or variable-centered approach to temperament and why? What does 3 year old behavioral type predict in Caspi‘s studies? What does it mean that the child is father to the man? Messinger & Henderson

3 Defining Temperament Underlying, biologically based (heritable) individual differences in the behavioral characteristics of the individual that is relatively invariant over time and across situations Messinger & Henderson

4 An infant’s characteristic style of approaching and reacting to people and situations.
Personality-to-be? “To different men, in the same situation, different modes of response appear natural and even inevitable." Messinger & Henderson

5 But… Calling something temperament does not make it any more ‘biological’ or inherited than any other construct Temperament is a measured construct with particular characteristics Stable/Unstable More heritable/Less heritable Messinger & Henderson

6 Thomas & Chess: Early temperamental types
Difficult Child (10%) irritable, irregular biological rhythms intense response to new situations Easy Child (40%) happy, regular biological rhythms accept new situations Slow to warm up, inhibited, child (15%) Reluctant/hesitant in new situations New York Longitudinal Study (Thomas & Chess, 1984) Which one are you? Messinger & Henderson

7 Messinger & Henderson

8 Goodness-of-Fit Model
The “meshing” of temperament with environmental properties, expectations, and demands Implications for parents and educators for creating environments that recognize each child’s temperament while encouraging adaptive functioning Messinger & Henderson

9 Applications of Goodness-of-Fit
A “difficult” temperament promotes survival during famine conditions in Africa (De Vries, 1984) Why? Low activity level is a risk for mental retardation among children raised in a poor institution (Schaffer, 1966) Messinger & Henderson

10 Recent Models of Temperament: Individual differences in
The expression of primary emotions (anger, fear, joy, interest) Goldsmith & Campos Activity level, emotionality, and sociability Buss & Plomin Messinger & Henderson

11 Individual differences in Reactivity and Self-regulation
Reactivity - the arousability of motor activity, affective, autonomic, CNS & endocrine responses. Self-regulation - Can modulate (facilitate or inhibit) reactivity and those processes include attention, approach, withdrawal, attack, behavioral inhibition, and self-soothing.” Rothbart, 1989 Messinger & Henderson

12 Neural bases of development of individual differences in temperament
Reactivity–speed, strength & valence of response to stimulation, Self Regulation – behaviors thatcontrol behavioral and emotional reactions to stimulation ( + or -) develops: reactive control, then active self regulation at end of 2nd year maps to development of brain areas involved in executive attention control Corresponds to current brain-behavior models: behavioral approach/activation system and behavioral inhibition/anxiety system Henderson, H. A., & Wachs, T. D. (2007). Temperament theory and the study of cognition-emotion interactions across development. Developmental Review, 27(3), doi: /j.dr Nayfeld

13 Evolution in our Conceptualization of the Neural Basis of Temperament
Hippocrates-Galen Personality types = balance of bodily humors Pavlov & Students Relation of CNS to individual differences Interplay between cortex and subcortex Influence of contextual factors AFTER CURRENT 12 Carter

14 BAS and BIS: motivational tendencies
Behavior Approach System (BAS) - governs approach/appetitive motivations - responds to signals of reward/end of punishment - behavior towards goals, positive feelings Behavior Inhibition System (BIS) - inhibition, interruption of behavior , increase in arousal/vigilance - responds to signals of punishment, nonreward, novelty - underlies states of fear and anxiety - Temperament differences: relative balance of positive affect/approach versus negative affect/inhibition behaviors Nayfeld

15 Neurolophysiology of approach/withdrawal
Amygdala - connections with brainstem nuclei—universal fear reactions - sensitive to ambiguity and uncertainty - temperament related to differences in amygdala activity Nucleus accumbens - anticipatory reward-related responding - activity related to size of anticipated reward EEG asymmetry - resting EEG asymmetry during stressful task related to differences in dealing with novel/stressful events Nayfeld - right frontal EEG asymmetry discriminated among preschoolers’ levels of social play

16 Inhibited and Uninhibited Infants “Grown Up”
“[A]dults who had been categorized in the second year of life as inhibited, compared with those previously categorized as uninhibited, showed greater functional MRI signal response within the amygdala to novel versus familiar faces.” 22 adults (M = 21.8 years) at two years were inhibited (n=13) or uninhibited (n = 9) 20 JUNE 2003 VOL 300 SCIENCE Carl E. Schwartz,1,2,3* Christopher I. Wright,2,3,4 Lisa M. Shin,2,5 Jerome Kagan,6 Scott L. Rauch2,3 Messinger, Henderson & Fernandez

17 Messinger & Henderson

18 Greater right frontal power among 10-month-olds who cried in response to maternal separation
Messinger & Henderson

19 Self-regulation Attentional and effortful processes that modulate reactivity regulate behaviors and emotions through voluntary inhibition, response modulation, and self-monitoring (Ahadi et al, 1993) form basis for well-regulated behavior and emotion executive system monitors and regulates reactivity Anterior cyngulate cortex (ACC) and Effortful control ACC facilitates voluntary control of thoughts and emotions ACC as neural alarm Nayfeld

20 Assessment of Temperament
Parental Report Laboratory Observations Psychophysiological Assessment Messinger & Henderson

21 Assessment of Temperament
Evaluate strengths/weaknesses of each: Parental Report Strength: Weakness: Laboratory Assessments Physiological Assessments Messinger & Henderson

22 Measuring temperament
Parent report Parent knows child best but is biased Lab measures Objective but limited behavior sample Do not correlate highly Under what conditions do the correlate??? Messinger & Henderson

23 When parents and raters agree
“maternal and observer ratings of infant negativity converged when infants manifested high degrees of negative affect during routine home-based activities. …ratings of infant positivity converged when infants experienced low mutually positive affect during play…. Sensitive to non-optimal behavior Hane et al., 2006 Messinger & Henderson

24 Measurement Approaches
Cognitive Neuroscience Techniques allowed understanding of neural network Interplay between networks and subcortical systems BUT, drawbacks of fMRI Restrictive procedure Poor temporal resolution AFTER CURRENT 19 Carter

25 Parent report: IBQ Activity Level, Distress to Limitations, Approach, Fear, Duration of Orienting, Smiling and Laughter: Vocal Reactivity:  Sadness:  Perceptual Sensitivity, High Intensity Pleasure:  Low Intensity Pleasure, Cuddliness, Soothability, Falling Reactivity/Rate of Recovery from Distress:  Behavior video Activity Level:  Movement of arms and legs, squirming and locomotor activity. Distress to Limitations:  Baby's fussing, crying or showing distress while a) in a confining place or position; b) involved in caretaking activities; c) unable to perform a desired action. Approach:  Rapid approach, excitement, and positive anticipation of pleasurable activities. Fear:  The baby's startle or distress to sudden changes in stimulation, novel physical objects or social stimuli; inhibited approach to novelty. Duration of Orienting:  The baby's attention to and/or interaction witha single object for extended periods of time. Smiling and Laughter:  Smiling or laughter from the child in general caretaking and play situations. Vocal Reactivity:  Amount of vocalization exhibited by the baby in daily activities. Sadness:  General low mood; lowered mood and activity specifically related to personal suffering, physical state, object loss, or inability to perform a desired action. Perceptual Sensitivity:  Amount of detection of slight, low intensity stimuli from the external environment. High Intensity Pleasure:  Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to high stimulus intensity, rate, complexity, novelty, and incongruity. Low Intensity Pleasure:  Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to situations involving low stimulus intensity, rate, complexity, novelty, and incongruity. Cuddliness:  The baby's expression of enjoyment and molding of the body to being held by a caregiver. Soothability:  Baby's reduction of fussing, crying, or distress when the caretaker uses soothing techniques. Falling Reactivity/Rate of Recovery from Distress:  Rate of recovery from peak distress, excitement, or general arousal; ease of falling asleep. Messinger & Henderson

26 Parent report: IBQ Messinger & Henderson
Activity Level:  Movement of arms and legs, squirming and locomotor activity. Distress to Limitations:  Baby's fussing, crying or showing distress while a) in a confining place or position; b) involved in caretaking activities; c) unable to perform a desired action. Approach:  Rapid approach, excitement, and positive anticipation of pleasurable activities. Fear:  The baby's startle or distress to sudden changes in stimulation, novel physical objects or social stimuli; inhibited approach to novelty. Duration of Orienting:  The baby's attention to and/or interaction witha single object for extended periods of time. Smiling and Laughter:  Smiling or laughter from the child in general caretaking and play situations. Vocal Reactivity:  Amount of vocalization exhibited by the baby in daily activities. Sadness:  General low mood; lowered mood and activity specifically related to personal suffering, physical state, object loss, or inability to perform a desired action. Perceptual Sensitivity:  Amount of detection of slight, low intensity stimuli from the external environment. High Intensity Pleasure:  Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to high stimulus intensity, rate, complexity, novelty, and incongruity. Low Intensity Pleasure:  Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to situations involving low stimulus intensity, rate, complexity, novelty, and incongruity. Cuddliness:  The baby's expression of enjoyment and molding of the body to being held by a caregiver. Soothability:  Baby's reduction of fussing, crying, or distress when the caretaker uses soothing techniques. Falling Reactivity/Rate of Recovery from Distress:  Rate of recovery from peak distress, excitement, or general arousal; ease of falling asleep. Messinger & Henderson

27 Parent report: IBQ Messinger & Henderson
Activity Level:  Movement of arms and legs, squirming and locomotor activity. Distress to Limitations:  Baby's fussing, crying or showing distress while a) in a confining place or position; b) involved in caretaking activities; c) unable to perform a desired action. Approach:  Rapid approach, excitement, and positive anticipation of pleasurable activities. Fear:  The baby's startle or distress to sudden changes in stimulation, novel physical objects or social stimuli; inhibited approach to novelty. Duration of Orienting:  The baby's attention to and/or interaction witha single object for extended periods of time. Smiling and Laughter:  Smiling or laughter from the child in general caretaking and play situations. Vocal Reactivity:  Amount of vocalization exhibited by the baby in daily activities. Sadness:  General low mood; lowered mood and activity specifically related to personal suffering, physical state, object loss, or inability to perform a desired action. Perceptual Sensitivity:  Amount of detection of slight, low intensity stimuli from the external environment. High Intensity Pleasure:  Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to high stimulus intensity, rate, complexity, novelty, and incongruity. Low Intensity Pleasure:  Amount of pleasure or enjoyment related to situations involving low stimulus intensity, rate, complexity, novelty, and incongruity. Cuddliness:  The baby's expression of enjoyment and molding of the body to being held by a caregiver. Soothability:  Baby's reduction of fussing, crying, or distress when the caretaker uses soothing techniques. Falling Reactivity/Rate of Recovery from Distress:  Rate of recovery from peak distress, excitement, or general arousal; ease of falling asleep. Messinger & Henderson

28 Infant smiling/laughter reveal influence of genetic & environment
Contrasts with parental responses to questions about negative emotion - heritability estimates tend to be higher and environmental influences less pronounced. Shared environmental effects – effects shared by monzygotic and dizygotic twins – point to possible socialization effects in factors affecting smiling and other positive emotional expressions. {Goldsmith, 1997 #1501}. {Goldsmith, 1999 #606}. Messinger & Henderson

29 IBQ: Smiling and Laughing Stability (Christina Fernandez & Lisa Ibanez)
8 mo. 10 mo. 12 mo. 15 mo. 18 mo. .736** .435 .768** .612* .762** .723** .795* .861** .570 .767** **. Correlation significant at the .01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation significant at the .05 level (2-tailed). Messinger & Henderson

30 Temperamental consistency
Temperament a building block for personality development as temperamental characteristics stabilize over time. Neonatal distress proneness, activity level, and attention show weak links with later assessments After one year, short-term stability of fear, positive emotionality, attention span, persistence, and activity level increase After 2nd year, evidence for longer association between temperament and later behavior. Messinger & Henderson

31 Consider specifics Developmentally appropriate indicators must be considered when assessing temperamental consistency over time. The same behavioral reaction to different stimuli may have different meanings Different behavioral reactions at different ages may have similar meanings Messinger & Henderson

32 Stability: Temperamental types from infancy
4-month old infants selected based on reactions to unfamiliar sensory stimuli 3 groups of infants High Negative High Positive Low Reactive Longitudinal assessment Contextually sensitive behavioral measures EEG Measure of frontal cerebral activation (brain) Moderate stability Fox, Henderson, et al. (2001) Insert Figure from Fox et al., (2001) Table re: out of home care Messinger & Henderson

33 Temperamental types – Person centered
High negative 4-month-olds -- low threshold to become distressed and motorically aroused to unfamiliar stimuli more likely to become fearful and subdued during early childhood, more likely to be behaviorally inhibited and reticent through age 4 Low reactive infants show a high arousal threshold are more likely to become bold and sociable High positive are least inhibited over time Kagan classic: Messinger & Henderson

34 Shyness/Inhibition by 4-month temperament group
Age (months) 48 24 14 Standardized measure of inhibition (+/- 1 SE) . 8 .6 .4 2 0.0 -.2 -.4 -.6 -.8 Low Reactive High Negative High Positive Shyness/Inhibition by 4-month temperament group Kagan classic: Fox, Henderson, et al. (2001)

35 Change in behavioral inhibition was related to nonparental care
Messinger & Henderson

36 Temperament and cerebral activation (EEG)
Among 4-month-olds infants selected for the clarity of their behavioral responsivity, high motor activity and negative affect predicted right frontal cerebral activation at 9 months [Calkins, 1996] frontal EEG asymmetry predicted a pattern of continuous behavioral inhibition at 9, 14, and 24 months [Fox, 2001]. Messinger & Henderson

37 Degnan et al, 2010 Exuberance-positive reactivity, approach, and sociability; measured at 9, 24, and 36 months. Frontal EEG symmetry-indicate general motivation (approach) and affect; measured at 36 months. Adaptive (e.g. social competence) and maladaptive (e.g. behavior problems) outcomes; measured at age 5. Romero

38 High exuberance related to left frontal EEG asymmetry
“A complex interplay of within-child and maternal factors affect the development of internalizing behavior in the early school years” High exuberance related to left frontal EEG asymmetry High exuberance related to social competence as moderated by frontal EEG asymmetry. Children with high, stable Exuberance profile displayed less social reticence (low level of shyness) High exuberance (supported by physiological motivation) also displayed greater surgency and greater externalizing behavior problems at age 5. Kathryn Amey Degnan, Heather A. Henderson, Nathan A. Fox, Kenneth H. Rubin. Predicting Social Wariness in Middle Childhood: The Moderating Roles of Child Care History, Maternal Personality and Maternal Behavior Romero

39 Romero

40 Romero

41 Infant Temperament * Mom Negativity  7-year Social Wariness
Messinger & Henderson

42 Preschool Social Reticence * Mom Solicitousness 7-year Social Wariness
Messinger & Henderson

43 InfancyAdulthood At 14–17 years, more high than low reactives
subdued in unfamiliar situations dour mood & anxiety over the future, more religious, sympathetic tone in the cardiovascular system, fast latency and large magnitude evoked potential from inferior colliculus, shallower habituation of ERP to discrepant visual events. Low correlations among bio measures. Less association of behavior & biology at 15 than earlier The preservation of two infant temperaments into adolescence. By Kagan, Jerome; Snidman, Nancy; Kahn, Vali; Towsley, Sara Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Vol 72(2), Jul 2007, 1-75. Messinger & Henderson

44 Gene-Endoenvironment Interaction
DRD4 - Long Allele Novelty/Sensation Seeking Attention Problems/Aggression Susceptibility to Parenting EEG Asymmetry Left Frontal – “Easy” Temperament Right Frontal – “Negative Reactive” Temperament Schmidt, Fox, Perez-Edgar & Hamer (2009) "Long" versions of polymorphisms are the alleles with 6 to 10 repeats. 7R appears to react less strongly to dopamine molecules.[8] Mattson

45 Frontal Asymmetry, DRD4, Temperament Differential susceptibility
9 mo EEG, Genes 48 mo Temperament CCTI – Maternal Report Soothability Attention Difficulties Mattson

46 Group Differences DRD4 by Asymmetry Susceptibility to Asymmetry
Soothability Attention Difficulties Asymmetry unrelated to DRD4 Complex Gene-Gene Interaction? Mattson

47 Genes influence relation between parenting and temperament
18-21 month olds DRD4 48 (7-repeat allele) “long” Allele increased sensitivity to environmental factors such as parenting. Lower quality parenting higher sensation seeking. Higher quality  lower sensation seeking Parenting quality interacts with genetic variation in dopamine receptor D4 to influence temperament in early childhood  Sheese BE, et al. Dev Psychopathol  (4): Messinger & Henderson

48 Making temperamental predictions
Variable-centered approach How do folks differ on a variable Stability over time Person-centered approach Relations among constructs within individual Caspi Messinger & Henderson

49 Person-centered approach
Observed 1,037 3-year-olds for 90 mins A cluster analysis of lack-of-control, approach, sluggish yielded 5 temperament types: Undercontrolled (impulsive, negative, low ER; 10%) Inhibited (shy, fearful, easily upset; 8%) Confident (zealous, eager to explore, impulsive; 28%) Reserved (timid, some shyness; 15%) Well-adjusted (self-control, confident, easy; 40%) Participants were 1,037 children from Dunedin, New Zealand ( birth cohort) – then assessed 980 (96%) of the 1,019 still alive (18 had died) Primarily white but with a range of ses Undercontrolled- impulsive, restless, negativistic, distractible, not great emotion reg Confident- zealous, adjust quickly to situation, a little impulsive, eager to explore, little concern about separating Inhibited- socially reticent, fearful, easily upset Reserved- timid and a little uncomfortable, shyness not extreme, didn’t interfere Well adjusted- capable of self-control, adequate confidence, not too upset with novel stuff At 26, completed a personality assessment with interviews and exams Bell

50 3-year-old observations predict parent ratings at 13/15 years
Lack of control  hi internalizing (.16/.18), externalizing (.23) low competence (.14/.21) Approach  low internalizing for boys (.15) Sluggishness  low competence (.17/.12) Temperament measures were drawn from behavior ratings made by examiners who observed boys and girls at ages 3, 5, 7, and 9 yrs. Factor analyses revealed 3 dimensions at each age: Lack of Control, Approach, and Sluggishness. Temperament dimensions at ages 3 and 5 yrs were correlated in theoretically coherent ways with behavior problems that were independently evaluated by parents and teachers at ages 9 and 11 yrs and by parents at ages 13 and 15 yrs. Lack of Control was more strongly associated with later externalizing behavior problems than with internalizing problems. Approach was associated with fewer internalizing problems among boys. Sluggishness was weakly associated with both anxiety and inattention, especially among girls. Lack of Control and Sluggishness were also associated with fewer adolescent competencies. Results suggest that early temperament may have predictive specificity for the development of psychopathology. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2003 APA, all rights reserved) Messinger & Henderson

51 Age-3 behavior styles and Questionnaire profiles at age 18
Under-controlled (n = 106) scored high on impulsivity, danger seeking, aggression, and interpersonal alienation. Inhibited (n = 80) scored low on impulsivity, danger seeking, aggression, and social potency. Confident Ss (n = 281) scored high on impulsivity, reserved Ss (n = 151) scored low on social potency, and well-adjusted Ss (n = 405) continued to exhibit normative behaviors Messinger & Henderson

52 Age-3 behavior styles and informant impressions at age 21
Messinger & Henderson

53 Age-3 behavior styles and interpersonal relations at age 21
Messinger & Henderson

54 Anti-social and suicide attempts
Messinger & Henderson

55 26 years – assess adult personality
Connections between 3-year-old temperament is stronger at 26 years (n=980) than 18 years Idea of niche-picking - as children become young adults they can create their own environments in ways that are correlated with their dispositional tendencies However, the effect sizes for these predictions are small to moderate! Caspi et al. (2003) Bell

56 Caspi et al. (2003) Children Adults Undercontrolled Intolerant
High negative emotionality Felt mistreated by others Antagonistic and unreliable Inhibited Overcontrolled and non-assertive Reported taking little pleasure in life Disengaged from their world Confident Extraverted Not conventional Most agentic Reserved Unassertive Introverted Less open to new experiences Well-adjusted Average adults Bell

57 Summary Reactivity and regulation model
Neurophysiologic and behavioral support Moderate longitudinal stability Neurophysiologic and genetic markers add stability As does parental care and environmental influences A general model of emotional development Messinger & Henderson

58 The Child Is Father of the Man?
My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky: So was it when my life began; So is it now I am a man: So be it when I shall grow old, Or let me die! The Child is father of the Man; And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. William Wordsworth, "My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold" Messinger & Henderson

59 Temperament Defining temperament Dimensions of temperament
Consistency of temperamental qualities and prediction to later behavior Temperament and development Conclusion Messinger & Henderson

60 Left asymmetry in cheek-raise (Duchenne) smiles
Messinger & Henderson

61 Approach/Withdrawal x Positive/Negative
Messinger & Henderson

62 Classic view of temperament: Fundamentally biological
Temperament is derived from an interaction between genetic predispositions (emotionality,activity level) and experience Genetic individual differences reflected in some physiological systems reactivity in sympathetic and central nervous system Messinger & Henderson

63 History of Neural Bases of Temperament
Hyppocrates-Galen: “sanguine” personality as balance of the 4 bodily humors Pavlov: excitatory v. inhibitory processes effect reflexes, predict personality Krasnogorsky: CNS properties that underlie temperament influenced by contextual factors (learning experiences, nutrition, etc) Nayfeld

64 What are the origins of personality?
Nature Temperament Genetics Sex differences Nurture Attachment Parenting Styles Culture Messinger & Henderson

65 Thomas & Chess Model of Temperament
Parents’ descriptions of 141 infants and children based on structured interviews Descriptions used to derive 9 dimensions of responding Dimensions cluster together to describe 3 basic temperamental types Messinger & Henderson

66 Examples Observation Questionnaires
LabTAB, Garcia-Coll Questionnaires IBQ, TBAQ Both methods can be used to study heritability and genetic effects Messinger & Henderson


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