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Temperament. Messinger & Henderson2 Today’s overview n What is temperament? n Describe your temperament using Thomas/Chess, Fox/Henderson or Caspi types.

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Presentation on theme: "Temperament. Messinger & Henderson2 Today’s overview n What is temperament? n Describe your temperament using Thomas/Chess, Fox/Henderson or Caspi types."— Presentation transcript:

1 Temperament

2 Messinger & Henderson2 Today’s overview n What is temperament? n Describe your temperament using Thomas/Chess, Fox/Henderson or Caspi types n What is goodness-of-fit (give examples)? n What are pros and cons of laboratory behavioral and parent report measures of temperament? n What are three types of infants distinguished by Fox/Henderson and how do they develop? – Reference the DVD illustrating these infants from class. n Do you favor a person-centered or variable-centered approach to temperament and why? n What does 3 year old behavioral type predict in Caspi‘s studies? n What does it mean that the child is father to the man?

3 Messinger & Henderson3 Defining Temperament n Underlying, biologically based (heritable) individual differences in the behavioral characteristics of the individual that is relatively invariant over time and across situations

4 Messinger & Henderson4 n An infant’s characteristic style of approaching and reacting to people and situations. n Personality-to-be? n “To different men, in the same situation, different modes of response appear natural and even inevitable."

5 Messinger & Henderson5 But… n Calling something temperament does not make it any more ‘biological’ or inherited than any other construct n Temperament is a measured construct with particular characteristics – Stable/Unstable – More heritable/Less heritable

6 Messinger & Henderson6 Thomas & Chess: Early temperamental types n Difficult Child ( 10%) – irritable, irregular biological rhythms – intense response to new situations n Easy Child (40%) – happy, regular biological rhythms – accept new situations n Slow to warm up, inhibited, child (15%) – Reluctant/hesitant in new situations n New York Longitudinal Study (Thomas & Chess, 1984) n Which one are you?

7 Messinger & Henderson7

8 8 Goodness-of-Fit Model n The “meshing” of temperament with environmental properties, expectations, and demands – Implications for parents and educators for creating environments that recognize each child’s temperament while encouraging adaptive functioning

9 Messinger & Henderson9 Applications of Goodness-of-Fit n A “difficult” temperament promotes survival during famine conditions in Africa (De Vries, 1984) n Why? n Low activity level is a risk for mental retardation among children raised in a poor institution (Schaffer, 1966) n Why?

10 Messinger & Henderson10 Recent Models of Temperament: Individual differences in n The expression of primary emotions (anger, fear, joy, interest) – Goldsmith & Campos n Activity level, emotionality, and sociability – Buss & Plomin

11 Messinger & Henderson11 Individual differences in Reactivity and Self-regulation n Reactivity - the arousability of motor activity, affective, autonomic, CNS & endocrine responses. n Self-regulation - Can modulate (facilitate or inhibit) reactivity and those processes include attention, approach, withdrawal, attack, behavioral inhibition, and self- soothing.” Rothbart, 1989

12 Neural bases of development of individual differences in temperament n Reactivity–speed, strength & valence of response to stimulation, n Self Regulation – behaviors thatcontrol behavioral and emotional reactions to stimulation ( + or -) – develops: reactive control, then active self regulation at end of 2 nd year n maps to development of brain areas involved in executive attention control n Corresponds to current brain-behavior models: – behavioral approach/activation system and behavioral inhibition/anxiety system n Henderson, H. A., & Wachs, T. D. (2007). Temperament theory and the study of cognition-emotion interactions across development. Developmental Review, 27(3), 396-427. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2007.06.004Temperament theory and the study of cognition-emotion interactions across development Nayfeld

13 Evolution in our Conceptualization of the Neural Basis of Temperament n Hippocrates-Galen – Personality types = balance of bodily humors n Pavlov & Students – Relation of CNS to individual differences – Interplay between cortex and subcortex – Influence of contextual factors Carter

14 BAS and BIS: motivational tendencies n Behavior Approach System (BAS) – - governs approach/appetitive motivations – - responds to signals of reward/end of punishment – - behavior towards goals, positive feelings n Behavior Inhibition System (BIS) – - inhibition, interruption of behavior, increase in arousal/vigilance – - responds to signals of punishment, nonreward, novelty – - underlies states of fear and anxiety n - Temperament differences: relative balance of positive affect/approach versus negative affect/inhibition behaviors Nayfeld

15 Neurolophysiology of approach/withdrawal n Amygdala - connections with brainstem nuclei— universal fear reactions - sensitive to ambiguity and uncertainty - temperament related to differences in amygdala activity n Nucleus accumbens - anticipatory reward-related responding - activity related to size of anticipated reward n EEG asymmetry - resting EEG asymmetry during stressful task related to differences in dealing with novel/stressful events Nayfeld - right frontal EEG asymmetry discriminated among preschoolers’ levels of social play

16 Messinger, Henderson & Fernandez16 Inhibited and Uninhibited Infants “Grown Up” n “[A]dults who had been categorized in the second year of life as inhibited, compared with those previously categorized as uninhibited, showed greater functional MRI signal response within the amygdala to novel versus familiar faces.” – 22 adults (M = 21.8 years) – at two years were inhibited (n=13) or uninhibited (n = 9) 20 JUNE 2003 VOL 300 SCIENCE Carl E. Schwartz,1,2,3* Christopher I. Wright,2,3,4 Lisa M. Shin,2,5 Jerome Kagan,6 Scott L. Rauch2,3

17 Messinger & Henderson17

18 Messinger & Henderson18 Greater right frontal power among 10- month-olds who cried in response to maternal separation

19 Self-regulation n Attentional and effortful processes that modulate reactivity – regulate behaviors and emotions through voluntary inhibition, response modulation, and self-monitoring (Ahadi et al, 1993) – form basis for well-regulated behavior and emotion – executive system monitors and regulates reactivity n Anterior cyngulate cortex (ACC) and Effortful control – ACC facilitates voluntary control of thoughts and emotions – ACC as neural alarm Nayfeld

20 Messinger & Henderson20 Assessment of Temperament Laboratory ObservationsParental Report Psychophysiological Assessment

21 Messinger & Henderson21 Assessment of Temperament n Evaluate strengths/weaknesses of each: – Parental Report n Strength: n Weakness: – Laboratory Assessments n Strength: n Weakness: – Physiological Assessments n Strength: n Weakness:

22 Messinger & Henderson22 Measuring temperament n Parent report – Parent knows child best but is biased n Lab measures – Objective but limited behavior sample n Do not correlate highly – Under what conditions do the correlate???

23 When parents and raters agree n “maternal and observer ratings of infant negativity converged when infants manifested high degrees of negative affect during routine home-based activities. n …ratings of infant positivity converged when infants experienced low mutually positive affect during play…. n Sensitive to non-optimal behavior – Hane et al., 2006 Messinger & Henderson23

24 Measurement Approaches n Cognitive Neuroscience Techniques – allowed understanding of neural network – Interplay between networks and subcortical systems n BUT, drawbacks of fMRI – Restrictive procedure – Poor temporal resolution Carter

25 Messinger & Henderson25 Parent report: IBQ n Activity Level, Distress to Limitations, Approach, Fear, Duration of Orienting, n Smiling and Laughter: Vocal Reactivity: Sadness: Perceptual Sensitivity, High Intensity Pleasure: n Low Intensity Pleasure, Cuddliness, Soothability, Falling Reactivity/Rate of Recovery from Distress: n Behavior video

26 Messinger & Henderson26 Parent report: IBQ

27 Messinger & Henderson27 Parent report: IBQ

28 Messinger & Henderson28 Infant smiling/laughter reveal influence of genetic & environment n Contrasts with parental responses to questions about negative emotion - heritability estimates tend to be higher and environmental influences less pronounced. n Shared environmental effects – effects shared by monzygotic and dizygotic twins – point to possible socialization effects in factors affecting smiling and other positive emotional expressions. – {Goldsmith, 1997 #1501}. {Goldsmith, 1999 #606}.

29 Messinger & Henderson29 IBQ: Smiling and Laughing Stability (Christina Fernandez & Lisa Ibanez) **. Correlation significant at the.01 level (2-tailed). *. Correlation significant at the.05 level (2-tailed). 8 mo.10 mo.12 mo.15 mo.18 mo. 8 mo. 10 mo..736** 12 mo..435.768** 15 mo..612*.762**.723** 18 mo..795*.861**.570.767**

30 Messinger & Henderson30 Temperamental consistency n Temperament a building block for personality development as temperamental characteristics stabilize over time. – Neonatal distress proneness, activity level, and attention show weak links with later assessments – After one year, short-term stability of fear, positive emotionality, attention span, persistence, and activity level increase – After 2nd year, evidence for longer association between temperament and later behavior.

31 Messinger & Henderson31 Consider specifics n Developmentally appropriate indicators must be considered when assessing temperamental consistency over time. – The same behavioral reaction to different stimuli may have different meanings – Different behavioral reactions at different ages may have similar meanings

32 Messinger & Henderson32 Stability: Temperamental types from infancy n 4-month old infants selected based on reactions to unfamiliar sensory stimuli – 3 groups of infants n High Negative n High Positive n Low Reactive n Longitudinal assessment – Contextually sensitive behavioral measures – EEG Measure of frontal cerebral activation (brain) n Moderate stability Fox, Henderson, et al. (2001)

33 Messinger & Henderson33 Temperamental types – Person centered n High negative 4-month-olds -- low threshold to become distressed and motorically aroused to unfamiliar stimuli – more likely to become fearful and subdued during early childhood, – more likely to be behaviorally inhibited and reticent through age 4 n Low reactive infants show a high arousal threshold are more likely to become bold and sociable n High positive are least inhibited over time Kagan classic:

34 Shyness/Inhibition by 4-month temperament group Fox, Henderson, et al. (2001) Kagan classic:

35 Messinger & Henderson35 Change in behavioral inhibition was related to nonparental care

36 Messinger & Henderson36 Temperament and cerebral activation (EEG) n Among 4-month-olds infants selected for the clarity of their behavioral responsivity, – high motor activity and negative affect predicted right frontal cerebral activation at 9 months [Calkins, 1996] – frontal EEG asymmetry predicted a pattern of continuous behavioral inhibition at 9, 14, and 24 months [Fox, 2001].

37 Degnan et al, 2010 Exuberance-positive reactivity, approach, and sociability; measured at 9, 24, and 36 months. Frontal EEG symmetry-indicate general motivation (approach) and affect; measured at 36 months. Adaptive (e.g. social competence) and maladaptive (e.g. behavior problems) outcomes; measured at age 5. Romero

38 High exuberance related to left frontal EEG asymmetry High exuberance related to social competence as moderated by frontal EEG asymmetry. Children with high, stable Exuberance profile displayed less social reticence (low level of shyness) High exuberance (supported by physiological motivation) also displayed greater surgency and greater externalizing behavior problems at age 5. – Kathryn Amey Degnan, Heather A. Henderson, Nathan A. Fox, Kenneth H. Rubin. Predicting Social Wariness in Middle Childhood: The Moderating Roles of Child Care History, Maternal Personality and Maternal Behavior Romero “ A complex interplay of within-child and maternal factors affect the development of internalizing behavior in the early school years”

39 Romero


41 Messinger & Henderson41 Infant Temperament * Mom Negativity  7-year Social Wariness

42 Messinger & Henderson42 Preschool Social Reticence * Mom Solicitousness  7-year Social Wariness

43 Infancy  Adulthood n At 14–17 years, more high than low reactives – subdued in unfamiliar situations – dour mood & anxiety over the future, – more religious, – sympathetic tone in the cardiovascular system, – fast latency and large magnitude evoked potential from inferior colliculus, – shallower habituation of ERP to discrepant visual events. n Low correlations among bio measures. – Less association of behavior & biology at 15 than earlier Messinger & Henderson43 The preservation of two infant temperaments into adolescence. By Kagan, Jerome; Snidman, Nancy; Kahn, Vali; Towsley, Sara Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. Vol 72(2), Jul 2007, 1-75.

44 Gene-Endoenvironment Interaction n DRD4 - Long Allele – Novelty/Sensation Seeking – Attention Problems/Aggression – Susceptibility to Parenting n EEG Asymmetry – Left Frontal – “Easy” Temperament – Right Frontal – “Negative Reactive” Temperament – Schmidt, Fox, Perez-Edgar & Hamer (2009) Mattson "Long" versions of polymorphisms are the alleles with 6 to 10 repeats. 7R appears to react less strongly to dopamine molecules.[8] or_D4

45 Frontal Asymmetry, DRD4, Temperament Differential susceptibility n 9 mo – EEG, Genes n 48 mo – Temperament n CCTI – Maternal Report – Soothability – Attention Difficulties Mattson

46 Group Differences Mattson n DRD4 by Asymmetry – Susceptibility to Asymmetry n Soothability n Attention Difficulties – Asymmetry unrelated to DRD4 – Complex Gene-Gene Interaction?

47 Genes influence relation between parenting and temperament 18-21 month olds DRD4 48 (7-repeat allele) “long” Allele increased sensitivity to environmental factors such as parenting. Lower quality parenting  higher sensation seeking. Higher quality  lower sensation seeking Parenting quality interacts with genetic variation in dopamine receptor D4 to influence temperament in early childhoodParenting quality interacts with genetic variation in dopamine receptor D4 to influence temperament in early childhood Sheese BE, et al. Dev Psychopathol 2007 19(4):1039-46 Messinger & Henderson47

48 Messinger & Henderson48 Making temperamental predictions n Variable-centered approach – How do folks differ on a variable n Stability over time n Person-centered approach – Relations among constructs within individual n Stability over time n Caspi

49 Person-centered approach n Observed 1,037 3-year-olds for 90 mins – A cluster analysis of lack-of-control, approach, sluggish n yielded 5 temperament types: – Undercontrolled (impulsive, negative, low ER; 10%) – Inhibited (shy, fearful, easily upset; 8%) – Confident (zealous, eager to explore, impulsive; 28%) – Reserved (timid, some shyness; 15%) – Well-adjusted (self-control, confident, easy; 40%) Bell

50 Messinger & Henderson50 3-year-old observations predict parent ratings at 13/15 years n Lack of control  – hi internalizing (.16/.18), – externalizing (.23) – low competence (.14/.21) n Approach  – low internalizing for boys (.15) n Sluggishness  – low competence (.17/.12)

51 Messinger & Henderson51 Age-3 behavior styles and Questionnaire profiles at age 18

52 Messinger & Henderson52 Age-3 behavior styles and informant impressions at age 21

53 Messinger & Henderson53 Age-3 behavior styles and interpersonal relations at age 21

54 Messinger & Henderson54 Anti-social and suicide attempts

55 26 years – assess adult personality n Connections between 3-year-old temperament is stronger at 26 years (n=980) than 18 years n Idea of niche-picking - as children become young adults they can create their own environments in ways that are correlated with their dispositional tendencies n However, the effect sizes for these predictions are small to moderate! – Caspi et al. (2003) Bell

56 Caspi et al. (2003) ChildrenAdults Undercontrolled Intolerant High negative emotionality Felt mistreated by others Antagonistic and unreliable Inhibited Overcontrolled and non-assertive Reported taking little pleasure in life Disengaged from their world Confident Extraverted Not conventional Most agentic Reserved Unassertive Introverted Less open to new experiences Well-adjusted Average adults Bell

57 Summary n Reactivity and regulation model – Neurophysiologic and behavioral support n Moderate longitudinal stability – Neurophysiologic and genetic markers add stability – As does parental care and environmental influences n  A general model of emotional development Messinger & Henderson57

58 Messinger & Henderson58 The Child Is Father of the Man? My heart leaps up when I behold A rainbow in the sky: So was it when my life began; So is it now I am a man: So be it when I shall grow old, Or let me die! The Child is father of the Man; And I could wish my days to be Bound each to each by natural piety. – William Wordsworth, "My Heart Leaps Up When I Behold"

59 Messinger & Henderson59 Temperament n Defining temperament n Dimensions of temperament n Consistency of temperamental qualities and prediction to later behavior n Temperament and development n Conclusion

60 Messinger & Henderson60 Left asymmetry in cheek-raise (Duchenne) smiles

61 Messinger & Henderson61 Approach/Withdrawal x Positive/Negative

62 Messinger & Henderson62 Classic view of temperament: Fundamentally biological n Temperament is derived from an interaction between genetic predispositions (emotionality,activity level) and experience n Genetic individual differences reflected in some physiological systems – reactivity in sympathetic and central nervous system

63 History of Neural Bases of Temperament n Hyppocrates-Galen: “sanguine” personality as balance of the 4 bodily humors n Pavlov: excitatory v. inhibitory processes effect reflexes, predict personality n Krasnogorsky: CNS properties that underlie temperament influenced by contextual factors (learning experiences, nutrition, etc) Nayfeld

64 Messinger & Henderson64 What are the origins of personality? n Nature – Temperament – Genetics – Sex differences n Nurture – Attachment – Parenting Styles – Culture

65 Messinger & Henderson65 Thomas & Chess Model of Temperament n Parents’ descriptions of 141 infants and children based on structured interviews n Descriptions used to derive 9 dimensions of responding n Dimensions cluster together to describe 3 basic temperamental types

66 Messinger & Henderson66 Examples n Observation – LabTAB, Garcia-Coll n Questionnaires – IBQ, TBAQ n Both methods can be used to study heritability and genetic effects

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