Presentation on theme: "Anique de Bruin Erasmus University Rotterdam Metacognition and cognitive load The effect of self-explanation when learning to play chess."— Presentation transcript:
Anique de Bruin Erasmus University Rotterdam Metacognition and cognitive load The effect of self-explanation when learning to play chess
Goal present studies Initial framework: Expertise development Deliberate practice (Ericsson et al., 1993): metacognitive activities crucial for expertise development Rehearsal and correction of errors
Metacognitive strategies Self-explanations: –Process more deliberately –Recognizing inconsistencies –Stimulate integration new information Enhances accuracy metacognition
Metacognition in skill acquisition To what extent do metacognitive activities foster learning in skill domains (chess)? -non-verbal nature of material -no explicit information provided -novices
Self-explanations in chess Three groups (N = 15 per group): 1.Observation only (O) 2.Predict next move (PO) 3.Predict and self- explain next move (PSE)
Procedure Three phases: –Basic rules –Learning phase: Predict and self-explain Prediction only Observation –Test phase: play against computer
Discover chess principles Chess rules: too little information to play endgame Chess principles necessary: King checkmated at the edge of the board Rook minimizes space of the King What instruction fosters development of principled understanding most?
Self-explanations Three categories: 1.Basic chess rules 2.Partial explanation of principles 3.Complete explanation of principles
Results self-explanations Median split on number of SEs: High-explainers: >51 (mean=95.1) Low-explainers: <51 (mean=32.4) Compare differences in SE and chess performance between high- and low-explainers
Cognitive load From CL perspective surprising: –Despite low prior knowledge, prediction + self-explanation foster learning better principled understanding What (meta)cognitive mechanisms explain SE effect in novices?
Conclusions I More explanation of basic chess rules better discovery of principles Rehearsing basic rules frees up processing resources for principle discovery
Conclusions II Verbalization of self-explanations crucial: No effect in PO condition –Meaningful self-explanations Wording of the SE instruction: Explain why the computer would make that move No re-reads (as in text learning) possible –Verbalized (partial) discoveries of principles receive more activation in WM
Future research Examine covert self-explanation in PO condition Test effect SE only Manipulate rehearsal of basic chess rules to test effect on principle discovery