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Semantic Translation of Simulink/Stateflow Models to Hybrid Automata using Graph Transformations A. Agarwal, Gy. Simon, G. Karsai ISIS, Vanderbilt University Nashville, TN 37235, USA

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2/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Overview Translation problem Tool used: GReAT Algorithm with example Summary

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3/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal The translation problem Motivation Simulink/Stateflow De facto prototyping and simulation environment for dynamic systems E.g.: Embedded controllers for automobiles Large legacy libraries No formal verification capability Hybrid automata Mathematical modeling technique Formal foundations Few real-life examples Verification capability ?

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4/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal The translation problem Simulink/Stateflow Example (Input) Control level of tank:

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5/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal The translation problem Hybrid Automata (Output) Hybrid Systems: Dynamic systems with simultaneous continuous and discrete dynamics Hybrid Automata Example (ref: SAL @ U Penn) Tank’=0 Tank’=-Tank+In1-max(tank-15,0)*3 Tank’= -tank-max(tank-15,0)*3 Tank’=-max(tank-15,0)*3 Tank’=In1-max(Tank-15,0)*3 Tank’ = In1 A = (X, V, flow,inv, init, E, jump, å, syn) ― X : a set of real-valued variables ― V : a set of control modes ― flow : a flow condition over X ― inv : a set of invariant over X ― init : an initial condition ― E : a set of transitions ― jump : a condition for transition ― å : a set of events ― syn : a set of synchronization labels

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6/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Background Metamodels as graph grammars Simulink/Stateflow model: Graph grammar Model Object Network Graph Visualization UML-based metamodels for: Simulink/Stateflow and HSIF (HA interchange language) Simulink/Stateflow metamodel:

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7/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Tool used: GReAT Metamodel of Source Metamodel of Target DS-PI Model Source Models DS-PS Model Target Model Model Transformation Specification Input Output Describes Refers to Transformation Modeling Transformation Execution Transformation Model API Meta GRE Model API

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8/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal GReAT: UMT: A Simple Model Transformation Language 1.Pattern specification Pattern variables are typed with their UML classes Cardinality of association-ends is checked Extra (OCL) constraints define guard conditions 2.Graph transformation and rewrite Create new/delete/modify objects Attribute mapping (procedural) “Cross-links”: edges between old/new objects Input/output ports: pre-bound pattern variables 3.“High-level” control flow over the rules Port connections imply “data flow” and control flow Hierarchy/Sequencing/Recursion/Branching

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9/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Algorithm 1.Stateflow Part 1.Convert to StateChart 1.Create Hierarchical StateChart, flatten it 2.Determine data dependencies, extend state machines 3.Prune unreachable states 2.Convert to HSIF 1.Create Hybrid Automata, variables 2.Add transitions with guards 2. Simulink Part 1.Locate associated Hybrid Automata 2.Add variables as needed 3.Derive and add equations

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10/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Algorithm Determine data dependencies, extend state machines

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11/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Algorithm Inferring signals, extending state machines (d) Final Hybrid Automata States

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12/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Status, metrics A hierarchal Simulink diagram with the following primitives: Continuous: Integrator Math: Product/Sum/Gain/Abs/Min/Max/Signum/Saturate Signal and Systems : Mux/Demux/Ground Source and Sinks: Constant/Workspace variables Nonlinear : Controlled Switch/Manual Switch The Simulink diagram can contain any number of Stateflow diagram. Stateflow diagram can be hierarchical. The Stateflow diagram receives signals from Simulink and can only produce switching signals that control the switches. Switches cannot be controlled by any other Simulink block. In Stateflow, the switch control action can only be performed in the entry action. Size Primitive rules: 154 Complex rules: 43 C++ code: ~6000 lines Complexity Most algorithms are of polynomial complexity Some parts are worst-case exponential: State-splitting Flattening

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13/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal GReAT in Action ProblemDeveloper GReAT Hand code Primitive Rules #/ Compound Rules # Man hoursLOC Hierarchical Data Flow (HDF) to Flat Data Flow (FDF) Staff Eng 11/3~3~200 KHORUS to GUDMLMSc Student 19/10~8~500 Hierarchical Concurrent State Machine (HCSM) to Finite State Machine (FSM) PhD Student 21/5~8~500 Simulink Stateflow to C codePhD Researcher 70/50~25~2.5K Matlab Simulink/ Stateflow to Hybrid Automata PhD Student 154/43~60~6K

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14/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Summary, further work Tool integration requires translators that convert models created in one tool into semantically equivalent models in other tools. Translators are essential for design automation…but difficult to build. Graph transformations can be used to solve practical translation problems … if good supporting tools are available. Modeling a transformation using GT programs offers an opportunity for reasoning about the transformations --- A great potential area for research.

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15/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal Background slides

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16/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal UMT A Transformation Rule PatternEffect Output port Input port

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17/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal UMT Rule execution – Rules and Blocks Rules produce multiple matches: “packets”. By default, all packets are consumed by a rule, and new set of packets is produced “Blocks” are composite rules, with simple composition semantics. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (1) (2) (3)

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18/14 CHESS ReviewAditya Agrawal UMT Rule execution- ForBlocks and Test/Cases “ ForBlocks” process single packets. Tests are conditional control structures built from Cases. (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) A single Case: (1) (2) (3) Also supported Recursion Non-deterministic execution

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1 Translation Validation: From Simulink to C Michael RyabtsevOfer Strichman Technion, Haifa, Israel Acknowledgement: sponsored by a grant from General.

1 Translation Validation: From Simulink to C Michael RyabtsevOfer Strichman Technion, Haifa, Israel Acknowledgement: sponsored by a grant from General.

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