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African Societies & The Impact of Islam Mosque in Timbuktu.

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Presentation on theme: "African Societies & The Impact of Islam Mosque in Timbuktu."— Presentation transcript:

1 African Societies & The Impact of Islam Mosque in Timbuktu

2  Timeline from BBC Timeline from BBC  Africa 500-1000 CE – Map LinksMap Links  Islamic Sourcebook – Fordham University Islamic Sourcebook  Link through CPCC Library, “Empire of Faith” – Islam Part 1 and 2“Empire of Faith” – Islam Part 1 and 2  BBC Link for Africa & Islam BBC Link for Africa & Islam  Art of Umayyad Period Art of Umayyad Period

3  Diversity of peoples and regions  Difficult to traverse  Difficult climate, seasonal rainfall  Large deserts  Adaptation of people to different environments  Many different cultures & languages  Valleys of Nile & Niger prosper  Highly-developed agricultural societies  Political and social hierarchies  Trade  Art and craftsmanship


5 Varieties of political organization within Africa: LocationMakeup of Kingdom Sub-Saharan AfricaLarge groups of villages under a regional ruler South AfricaStateless – ruled by local chiefs & councils East AfricaCity-states emerge with independent rulers Central rain forest & eastern plans Foraging societies – nomadic clans

6  Bantu Migrations  500 BC – 1000 CE Bantu tribes migrate from West Africa  Organized into families/clans  Patriarchal  People or Language?  Provided unity

7  The Bantu Toolkit:  People adopted Bantu language and culture b/c it was useful in adapting to different environments  Patriarchal rule, polygamy, ancestor worship = stability and connections  Many Bantu became cattle herders = means for survival, way of life, wealth and status  Adaptability to different and changing circumstances

8  Polytheistic  Animism (belief that spirits existed that could either help or harm human beings)  Like San Rock Art people we studied earlier  Priests & prophets performed rituals  Sometimes King alone could contact gods  Ancestor worship

9 1. Côte d'Ivoire, Mali, or Burkina Faso; 2. Côte d'Ivoire

10 Kono or Komo are male associations to ward off evil, protect individual or village, project individual’s power and knowledge Men construct masks as symbols of power – they become experts in nyama, a vital force that can bring good or evil Just possessing a mask gives the individual power, but it is also used in rituals For more info., follow linklink

11  12 th -15 th -century CE  Symbols of power and religion  Connection with spirit world  Power of kings  To reach spirits  Over people  Link to images Link  Link to videos Link to videos

12 Links to Websites on African Religions   http://www- ml http://www- ml  w_relig.html w_relig.html

13  Animists, Christians, Muslims  Christian Kingdoms, such as Axum  Variety of Islamic practice  Orthodox and non-orthodox monotheists  People who mixed Islam and other beliefs  Variety of political entities overlapping with religious practice – diff. rulers w/ diff. interests and religious views

14 320-340 CE - Ethiopian King Ezana made Christianity Official State Religion African Christianity in Ethiopia During the reign of Ethiopia's Emperor Lalibela (c. 1200-1250), the monks of the region built a remarkable series of churches hewn out of solid rock that remain unique to this day. The churches stand as a testament to the strength and fervor of the Ethiopian Christian Church. The church shown here, the Church of St. George, was carved out of red volcanic rock in the shape of a Greek cross. Workers first chipped away the stone until they reached a depth of 40 feet. Afterwards, they molded the exterior of the church and hollowed out its interior. Photo credit: Georg Gerster/ Photo Researchers, Inc.

15 St. George’s – the Rock Church Link to GoogleMap

16 Priest Pilgrim Procession Paintings Link to photos

17  Aksum or Axum was ancient Ethiopian kingdom

18 LinkLink to GoogleMap of Aksum Stelae Site

19  Muslims and Islamic religion spread into:  North Africa (639-642 CE)  Created Umayyad Spain (711 CE)  Created Fatimid Egypt (909-969 CE)  Led by Isma’ilis – Shi’ite Islam – Orthodox  Moved capital from Alexandria to  New city – Cairo  Defeated by Crusaders in 1099


21  East African culture created from combo of African and Arab influences  “Swahili” = “coasters,” people living along coast  Swahili language a combination of Bantu and Arabic  Muslims migrated down coast from north  Development of trade ports and city-states along coast



24  Indian Ocean trade united them  Class of merchants developed along coast  Trade to India, Indonesia, Arabic peninsula  Development of plantation economies on islands of Zanzibar and Pemba (similar to what happened in Atlantic) – cloves & spicesclovesspices  Use and trade of slaves by Swahili and Arab elites

25 Malindi Mosque, Zanzibar Photos from Zanzibar

26  Muslim demand for slaves of all races: not religious, for political power and wealth  Variety of uses for African slaves: for household, military, and labor  Different than Atlantic slave trade which was racially- and plantation-based  Slave caravans from west Africa across Sahara  Muslims also traded in slaves from east Africa – coastal ports on Red Sea and Indian Ocean carried slaves from African interior

27  Trade brought west African societies into contact with Berbers, Arabs, other African tribes  The importance of camels – necessary to cross desert  Huge camel caravans to west Africa  West African rulers and kingdoms converted to Islam: used Islamic law, institutions, and writing  Link to Trade and Spread of Islam in Africa (Art) Link

28  Connections to other cultures  Spread of Islam  Slave trade  Growth of African merchant class and cities  Consolidation of kingdoms to control trade  Power used to control trade and people: enslaved non-Muslims and unprotected  Example, Ife bronzes: show kings AND captives

29  Ghana – “land of gold”  Strong kingdom before Islam  Controlled trade of gold & salt  Berber traders converted elite to Islam  Then Berbers adopted militant form of Islam – followers were called Almoravids  Conquered Spain, converted Ghanaians  Art of the Almoravid Period Art of the Almoravid Period  Trans-Saharan Gold Trade Trans-Saharan Gold Trade



32  Mali (1200-1450 CE)  Mandinke People  Successor to state of Ghana  Upper Niger River  Good agriculture & lots of rainfall  Strong Rulers: Sundiata, Mansa Uli, Mansa Musa  MM Pilgrimage to Mecca 1324 CE  Very rich & powerful – visited kings of other nations  Timbuktu became center of learning & culture (p. 134) Mosque in Djenne (Mali)

33 Djenne Mosque, Mali (20th century)

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