Presentation on theme: "Addressing Corruption in our Engineering/Construction Industry William P. Henry, P.E., D.WRE President Emeritus, ASCE Past Chair, AAES Institution of Engineers."— Presentation transcript:
Addressing Corruption in our Engineering/Construction Industry William P. Henry, P.E., D.WRE President Emeritus, ASCE Past Chair, AAES Institution of Engineers and Shipbuilders in Scotland March 20, 2012
Addressing Corruption in our Engineering/Construction Industry Magnitude of the Problem What Is Corruption? Ongoing Actions New Actions Current Status
Addressing Corruption in our Engineering/Construction Industry Corruption isn't a 20 th or 21 st century invention –Hammurabi's Code of Law 1750 BC -– standards for commercial transactions –Moses and the 10 Commandments – 1200 BC – Thou shall not steal Corruption has been around as long as people have! So, why work on it now?
Magnitude of the Problem World construction spending for 2011 = $5.8 trillion (USD) 10 percent +/- is lost to bribery and corruption – more than $580 billion (USD) annually! The economic magnitude of the problem is ENORMOUS!
Magnitude of the Problem FORECASTS 2015 - 80% of infrastructure $ spent in developing countries 2020 – 2/3 of major cities in the world will be in developing countries What does this mean for you?
Magnitude of the Problem Insufficient number of local engineers and constructors to do that quantity of work means: –More global practices than ever before in history –More teaming arrangements with new partners New relationships mean learning new ways of doing business – good or bad! The developing countries rate lowest in openness and transparency in decision making THE POTENTIAL FOR CORRUPTION IS HIGH !
Magnitude of the Problem CORRUPTION KILLS! –Poorer quality structures and equipment put people at risk –Needed projects go unbuilt –People die due to lack of potable water and health care
Magnitude of the Problem Corruption Undermines Sustainable Development –Project quality decreases –Required maintenance increases –Project useful life is shortened –Unnecessary use of resources –People are not served well
What is Corruption? The impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle An inducement to do wrong by improper or unlawful means 2 people making 1 bad decision
What is Corruption? Construction Participants –Owner –Engineer –Constructor –Material supplier –Equipment supplier –Lender –Regulatory/permitting agency
What is Corruption? Kickbacks / Bribery Front Companies Bid Rigging / Collusion Conflicts of Interest
What is Corruption? Kickbacks / Bribery – 2 Sides of the Same Coin –$ payments or wire transfers disguised – no trail –Lots of middlemen –Forged documents –Appears to be legitimate relationship – hard to decipher illegitimate relations from legitimate ones –Conspiracy of silence
What is Corruption? Front Company –Company with no history –Often offers diverse, disconnected services –Few ownership records – hidden owners (Government officials?) –Great interest in company by Project officials –May be subcontractor hired as local agent
What is Corruption? Bid Rigging / Collusion –Excluding unfavored bidders –Tipping off favored bidders –Profits come in change orders –Short bid period –Bidders agree who will get the work –May be a component of a larger corruption scheme
What is Corruption? Conflicts of Interest –Per se conflict – having a personal stake –Project officials, friends, relatives, family members involved –Corruption may be a co-existing element –Disclosures not made up front
What is Corruption? Red Flags Indicating Corruption Recurring use of 1 company on widely varied projects Close personal relationships among project parties Vague, incomplete or non-existent terms of reference Firms use false qualifications and “ghost” employees Shared addresses / phone numbers among firms A firm does business under lots of different names One firm does diverse tasks
Ongoing Actions That’s the way the world is Woe is me We’re helpless OR Act now & act together to eliminate corruption by improving the openness and transparency of the decision-making processes in all phases of our projects
Ongoing Actions Fighting corruption means improving the openness and transparency of the decision- making processes in all phases of a project: PROCUREMENT of the work of / by: –the owner –the project design/construct team –subcontractors –materials and equipment suppliers
Ongoing Actions Fighting corruption means improving the openness and transparency of the decision- making processes in all phases of a project: PERFORMANCE of the work by: –the owner –the project design team –the constructor –subcontractors –materials and equipment suppliers
Ongoing Actions Fighting corruption means putting ANTI- CORRUPTION MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS, POLICIES AND PRACTICES in place in your organization and implementing them vigorously at ALL LEVELS !
Ongoing Actions Who are the key players? What are they doing?
Ongoing Actions Key Players –Governments –FIDIC – consulting engineers –World Economic Forum – constructors –Lenders – World Bank, ADB –Evaluators – Transparency International, Global Infrastructure Anti-corruption Centre
Ongoing Actions Key Players –Professional Organizations: WFEO, UPADI, Pan American Academy of Engineers, ACECC –Societies in over 30 locales: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bahamas, Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, China, Colombia, Costa Rica, Egypt, Finland, France, Hungary, India, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Mexico, Nigeria, Panama, Poland, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Romania, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Taiwan, UK, USA, and Zimbabwe.
Ongoing Actions What Governments are doing –U.N. Convention against Corruption –OECD Convention on Combating Bribery –Inter-American Convention against Corruption –2 Council of Europe Conventions on Corruption –2 EU Conventions –African Union Convention on Preventing & Combating Corruption
Ongoing Actions What Governments are doing (cont.) –ADB OECD Anti-Corruption Action Plan for Asia & the Pacific –G8 Communique to reduce bribery –OECD prosecutions –Anti-bribery laws –Anti-money laundering regulations –Disbarments
Ongoing Actions FIDIC Guidelines for Business Integrity Management in the Consulting Engineering Industry How to develop and use a business integrity management system in your firm Uniform, transparent and accountable practices
Ongoing Actions World Economic Forum (WEF) –Major engineering/construction, oil & gas, and mining & minerals companies –Partnering Against Corruption Initiative (PACI) No bribery by firms Effective anti-corruption management programs in firms
Ongoing Actions Lenders World Bank Department of Institutional Integrity Voluntary Disclosure Program
Ongoing Actions Evaluators Transparency International Corruption Perception Index Business Principles for Countering Bribery
Ongoing Actions Evaluators Global Infrastructure Anti-corruption Centre Model Anti-corruption Policies, Procedures and Management Programs Alliances with National Engineering Societies On-line anti-corruption training module www.giaccentre.org
Ongoing Actions Professional Organizations ASCE New Canon 6 of our Code of Ethics (7/23/06) Engineers shall act in such a manner as to uphold and enhance the honor, integrity, and dignity of the engineering profession and shall act with zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud, and corruption. Engineers shall: »Not knowingly engage in business or professional practices of a fraudulent, dishonest or unethical nature;.
Ongoing Actions Canon 6 (continued) : »Act with zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud and corruption in all engineering or construction activities in which they are engaged; »Be especially vigilant in maintaining appropriate ethical behavior where payments of gratuities or bribes are institutionalized practices;
Ongoing Actions Canon 6 (continued) : »Strive for transparency in the procurement and execution of projects, including disclosure of names, addresses, purposes and fees or commissions paid for all agents facilitating projects; and »Encourage the use of certifications specifying zero-tolerance for bribery, fraud and corruption in all contracts
Ongoing Actions ANTI-CORRUPTION EDUCATON & TRAINING (ACET) PROGRAM –Ethicana – by FIDIC, WFEO, Societies –Education for practitioners & students –WHY corruption must be overcome –DVD, PP, class & teacher training materials –Professionally prepared –Sent FREE OF CHARGE to 3,000 firms, agencies and universities around the world
Ongoing Actions World Federation of Engineering Organizations (WFEO) Anti-Corruption Committee Chaired by a Past President of WFEO Members from each continent
Ongoing Actions Pan-American Union of Engineering Associations (UPADI) Societies from countries in North, Central, and South America Anti-Corruption Committee -Co-chaired by 2 US members -1 year old -Looking for 1member from each country -Activities at annual meetings – Cuba 4/12
Ongoing Actions Asian Civil Engineering Coordinating Council (ACECC) Asian countries plus Australia & the US Anti-Corruption Committee -Chaired by a US member -1 year old -Looking for 1member from each country -Activities at their conferences
New Actions ASCE Metrics Program Research program to identify trends in corruption activities globally – started 9/31. Are all the ongoing activities producing the results we need? Will show us what is working and where we need stronger or different actions Results expected in 12 – 15 months
New Actions UK INFORMATION Year Construction TI CPI Ranking (US $ Billion) 2000 223.710 2001 242.513 2002 264.110 2003 287.111 (T) 2004 311.911
New Actions UK INFORMATION (cont.) Year Construction TI CPI Ranking (US $ Billion) 2005 327.111 (T) 2006 344.511 2007 378.512 2008 367.816 2009 326.917
New Actions British Standards Institute - BS 10500 Specification for an Anti-Bribery Management System Adopted 1/1/12 BSI standards often become ISO standards
New Actions Contents Foreword - 3 1 Scope - 4 2 Terms and definitions - 5 3 Planning - 6 4 Adopting an anti-bribery policy and implementing the ABMS - 7 5 Monitoring and reviewing the ABMS - 13 6 Continual improvement of the ABMS - 14
New Actions Contents Annexes Annex A (informative) Guidance - 15 Annex B (informative) - 19 The Plan-Do-Check-Act (PDCA) cycle - 19 Bibliography - 20 List of figures Figure B.1 – PDCA cycle applied to the anti-bribery management system - 19
Current Status Act - I gnoring corruption is the same as condoning it Join our 4-Part Program –Educate all in the industry on true cost of corruption –Shine a bright spotlight on corrupt activities wherever you see them –Make it socially unacceptable to be involved in corruption –Educate next generation on the true cost of corruption
Current Status Ongoing work by all construction participants to achieve a level playing field where business can be done in an honest, transparent and fair manner and where adequate management programs and systems are in place. Continuing efforts to ensure that, in our engineering / construction industry, corruption does not kill.
Current Status Research to determine the effectiveness of existing anti-corruption programs Development of new standards of practice to address corruption
Current Status PLEASE DO YOUR PART TO ELIMINATE CORRUPTION IN THE ENGINEERING / CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Addressing Corruption in our Engineering/Construction Industry Questions?