Presentation on theme: "Semantic Change (XI-XII): A Quiz and Introduction to Functional Change (XIII)"— Presentation transcript:
Semantic Change (XI-XII): A Quiz and Introduction to Functional Change (XIII)
Before the fun starts: new forms in Lessons XI AC(U), ACR, ACET (Is vinegar sour wine?) CAD, CID, CAS CAP, CIP, CAPT, CEPT, CEIV FAC, FIC, FACT, FECT FLOR FLU, FLUX, FLUV, FLUOR (calcium fluoride melts when heated) FOLI, FOIL NOC, NOX, NIC, NEC
Before the fun starts: new forms in Lessons XII CERN, CRET, CERT DUR FUND, FUS, FOUND NASC, NAT PELL, PULS PON, POSIT, POUND, POSE TORT (a note about tortuous vs. torturous)
Which of the following statements about metaphor is not accurate? (a)Modern language does not make use of metaphor. (b)Metaphor is the same thing as analogy. (c) Metaphor creates polysemy. (d) Metaphors make abstract concepts concrete. (e) All of the above statements are accurate.
The expression We’re coming up on Spring break exemplifies which of the following metaphors? (a) Time is a Moving Object (b) Time is a Journey (c) A dead metaphor (d) Time is a Resource (e) None of the above
In the metaphor Life is a Journey, which concept is being used to understand the other? (a) Life (b) Journey (c) Etymology (d) Poetic license (e) Analogy Examples She’s just starting out in life. She followed in her mother’s footsteps. Somehow her life got off on the wrong track. His family connections paved the way for him. Some people just sail through life. His life was an uphill struggle.
Why is metaphor relevant to the study of word histories? (a) Metaphors create extra word meanings over time. (b) Metaphors die rapidly. (c) Metaphor was necessary prior to the development of modern science. (d) Metaphors come about because of polysemy. (e) Reasons (a) and (d).
Which of the following is an example of metonymy? (a) We have some new faces around here. (b) I have a Picasso on my wall. (c) We should normalize relations with Cuba. (d) Remember the Alamo! (e) All of the above.
Which of the following words has undergone semantic narrowing? (a) The word cow (b) The word excruciating (c) The word deer (d) The word meat (e) All of the above
Functional Extension A word’s function is its grammatical category. The following are all grammatical categories: 1. noun 2. verb 3. adjective 4. adverb 5. preposition
Functional Extension Some words are content words (we can make new ones). Some words are structure words (we can’t make up new ones). Structure words tend not to receive accents (stresses) when we talk Except in flight attendant English: We do ask at this time that you remain seated until the aircraft has come to a final stop.
Functional Extension How can you tell what the grammatical category of a word is? 1. noun 2. verb 3. adjective 4. adverb Both context and form matter. If the grammatical context is there, we can even interpret nonsense words.we can even interpret nonsense words
Functional Extension Functional extension occurs when a content word comes to have more than one function. Nouns can be used as verbs, verbs as nouns, and adjectives as nouns. Latin participial adjectives frequently get used as nouns: agent, patient, inhabitant. Sometimes these the word has a different pronunciation in the noun usage and the verb usage: permit, record, suspect, house.
Functional Extension Sometimes it’s hard to tell which usage came first, the verb or the noun usage: paint, judge, notice, visit, call Following are some verbs derived from nouns. Try to explain their groupings.