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1 Operating Systems. 2 Why Bother? We do not know: Who is Linus Trovalds Who is Andrew Tanenbaum What does the “red devil” logo represent How Bill Gates.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Operating Systems. 2 Why Bother? We do not know: Who is Linus Trovalds Who is Andrew Tanenbaum What does the “red devil” logo represent How Bill Gates."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Operating Systems

2 2 Why Bother? We do not know: Who is Linus Trovalds Who is Andrew Tanenbaum What does the “red devil” logo represent How Bill Gates made his $$$ …. What is this fuss about “open-source” software In addition, we want to learn: What is an Operating System (OS) How it manages computer hardware IMO, “the” most important subject in a IT degree: We are doing one!

3 3 A Simple Definition of OS A complex layer of software between applications and the computer hardware (my own definition) An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer (wikipedia) Its hard to agree on an authoritative definition: The bad news is that it is not possible (IMO) The good news is that it is not important Applications like Internet Explorer Operating System Computer Hardware

4 4 What Needs Learning? Background: Computer architecture -- what exactly is managed by the OS Evolution of OS Processes: How OS is executing applications Memory: How memory is managed Scheduling: How are multiple applications managed Input, output, and file systems: How do computers store data on hard disk Networking: How do two computers talk to each other Security: How to ensure that your data is safe

5 5 Text Book “Operating Systems”, 5th Edition by William Stallings Currently its not available in the library but we have ordered it We might have to live with the 4th edition!

6 6 This book is very simple and “simple is good” If time allows, we will cover the whole book The slides for this books are freely available: I will use customized slides in the class and will upload it on my website Do not expect that slides will help you in exams I’ll be testing your concepts! Do not expect a question like: “define operating system and give two examples” I will recommend that you read through the book (Chapter by Chapter): Try to understand the OS concepts! Why this Book?

7 7 Rules of the Game Grading Policy: I will upload it on the course website We’ll have normal stuff like 2 OHTs, 1 final exams, quizzes, and assignments In addition, I’d like every student to present something interesting about OS or its applications in the class: List of topics will be uploaded soon

8 8 Anyway...... Early computers (1940s era) had no OS Things got interesting in 1964: IBM developed System/360 hardware OS/360 was developed with the aim of “one OS for IBM hardware” OS/360 evolved in Multics, which inspired UNIX in 1970s And UNIX changed everything!

9 9

10 10 Tanenbaum and Minix Professor of CS at Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam in the Netherlands Wrote Minix for research and teaching purposes http://www.cs.vu.nl/~ast/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Andrew_S._Tanenbaum

11 11 Linus and Linux Linus Trovalds is the guy who wrote Linux when he was a student in Finland: Evolved out of Minix He is the ultimate authority of Linux OS: Current estimates suggest that he has 2% contribution to Linux

12 12 Linus vs. Tanenbaum Background: Linux has “monolithic” kernel Minix is based on “microkernel” approach AST posted an email “Linux is obsolete”: “ … the debate is essentially over. Microkernels have won …” “ … portability …” Reply from Linus: “… look at who makes money off minix, and who gives linux out for free …” “… your job is being a professor and researcher. That's one hell of a good excuse for some of the brain- damages of minix …” “.. From a theoretical (and aesthetical) standpoint linux looses..“ “.. Linux wins heavily on points of being available now..” Linus vs. Tanenbaum: http://people.fluidsignal.com/~luferbu/misc/Linus_vs_Tanenbaum.html More on : http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanenbaum-Torvalds_debate and Googlehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanenbaum-Torvalds_debate Today, Linux is much widely adopted than other non-M$ (Microsoft) Oses: Of course Windows is the clear market leader

13 13 Some Linux Distributions Red Hat Fedora Linux Debian Gentoo SuSE Slackware Ubuntu Knoppix Many more …

14 14 How Bill Gates made his $$$ In terms of market-share, M$ Windows is the big boy in OSes … I’ll let you find out more about this …

15 15 Steve Jobs - The Apple Guy

16 16 Open Source Software Open source refers to any computer software whose source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that permits users to study, change, and improve the software, and to redistribute it in modified or unmodified form (Wikipedia) Open Source Initiative: http://www.opensource.org/http://www.opensource.org/ Free Software Foundation: http://www.fsf.org/http://www.fsf.org/ GNU (GNU’s Not Unix) Project: http://www.gnu.org/http://www.gnu.org/ According to GNU: “Free software” is a matter of liberty, not price. To understand the concept, you should think of “free” as in “free speech”, not as in “free coke” How will companies make money then?

17 17 Now About Me Name: Aamir Shafi Computer Software Engr. from MCS (2003) Did my final year project at NIIT Ph.D. from the Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation at the University of Portsmouth, UK (2006) Ph.D. Supervisors: Mark Baker Bryan Carpenter Thesis Title: “Nested Parallelism for Multicore Systems Using Java” Taking care of the Center for High Performance Scientific Computing

18 18 Research Interests Research, development, and evaluation of parallel programming libraries, languages, and paradigms Also interested in scientific computing and simulations: Ported a cosmological simulation code to Java I’m the developer and maintainer of MPJ Express: A Java HPC library http://acet.rdg.ac.uk/projects/mpj/ http://mpj-express.org My old outdated website: http://acet.rdg.ac.uk/~mas

19 19 Parallel Computing Workshop At NIIT, we will be conducting a three day workshop on parallel computing: More details on: http://www.niit.edu.pk/hpschttp://www.niit.edu.pk/hpsc All BIT-7 students are encouraged to attend this workshop: Registration High Performance Computing or Parallel Computing or Scientific Computing is a very specialized area: Probably our only chance to get into NASA or ESA …

20 20 Lets Start Parallel Computing Get to know Parallel Computing: http://www.llnl.gov/computing/tutorials/parallel_comp/ Get to know Message Passing Interface (MPI): http://www.llnl.gov/computing/tutorials/mpi Get to know OpenMP: http://www.llnl.gov/computing/tutorials/openMP/ Try running a “Hello World” MPJ Express program: Download and install MPJ Express from (http://acet.rdg.ac.uk/projects/mpj)http://acet.rdg.ac.uk/projects/mpj Need help: See me in the HPC lab

21 21 My Take on Research In CS, research and development are strongly tied together Normally researchers in HPC are excellent programmers: Fortran, C, or Java A simple definition of research is “better understanding of things” Research could be very frustrating and challenging at times Good research always start with a lot of reading and thorough literature review Anyway, its an OS class …

22 22 Summary Covered some popular UNIX-based OSes Reminded ourselves the importance of operating systems Linux is a good OS, and deserves “a try” from us Center for High Performance Scientific Computing is up and running: Maybe you could join us while we are starting Next week we will talk about “computer architecture and evolution of OS” -- basically Chapter 1 and 2 of Stallings book


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