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Introduction to pharmacology. Basic terminology. Prof. Kršiak Department of Pharmacology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague Cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to pharmacology. Basic terminology. Prof. Kršiak Department of Pharmacology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague Cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to pharmacology. Basic terminology. Prof. Kršiak Department of Pharmacology, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague Cycle II, Subject: General Pharmacology Charles University in Prague, Third Faculty of Medicine

2 PHARMACOLOGY Searches for new drugs Investigates effects of known drugs WHAT IS PHARMACOLOGY ? pharmacologists are drug hunters mechanism of action, evidence of effect, adverse reactions,, fate in the body (absorption, distribution, elimination), dosage, course of effect …

3 Pharmacy deals with the preparation (compounding, manufacture), distribution and supply of medicines PHARMACOLOGY x PHARMACY Pharmacology is the study of effects of drugs (chemicals) on the functioning of the body

4 1963 propranolol – Beta-adrenoceptor blocking drugs – hypertension, angina pectoris 1972 cimetidine – H 2 -receptor-antagonists – Ulcer-healing drugs DISCOVERY OF NEW DRUGS

5 THE AIM OF TEACHING PHARMACOLOGY 1/ To UNDERSTAND how drugs act (mechanism of action) and general pharmacological principles 2/ To know how to prescribe a drug

6 Recommended textbook: PHARMACOLOGY - Rang H. P., et al. 7th ed. Churchill Livingstone, 2011, 2012 or 6th ed

7 Alternative Textbooks Basic & clinical pharmacology -. Katzung BG - 11th ed. - Lange Medi. Books - McGraw-Hill 2009 or 12th ed Lippincott‘s Illustrated Reviews Pharmacology. 4th ed. Howland RD, et al. : 2008 or 5th ed. Harvey R.D. et al

8 Additional texts for suplementary reading: Medical Pharmacology at a Glance - M. J. Neal. 6th ed. Wiley-Blackwell, 2009 Pharmacology Condensed Dale NN, Haylett DG, 2nd ed., Churchill Livingstone, 2009 British National Formulary No. 62 [or higher] - BMJ Books, September 2011[or more recent editions].

9 BASIC TERMS: generic namesx trade names paracetamol xPANADOL, PARALEN, etc SPC = Summary of Product Characteristics ATC = Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) Classification of drugs BNF, AISLP, Micromedex = electronic drug databases generic drug =copies when patent expires compliance= adherence to a treatment plan [non-proprietary] (brand, proprietary)

10 paracetamol Proprietary Names Martindale 222 AF (Johnson & Johnson, Canad.),4-Way Cold Tablets (Bristol-Myers Products, USA),Abajos (Nufarindo, Indon.),Abatem (Wermar, Mex.),Abdine Cold Relief (Bell, UK),Abenol (Pendopharm, Canad.),Abflex (Xeragen, S.Afr.),Abrol (Rekah, Israel),Abrolet (Rekah, Israel),Acamol (Teva, Israel),Acamol (Volta, Chile),Acamol Compuesto (Volta, Chile),Acamoli (Teva, Israel),Acamoli Cold (Teva, Israel),Acamol Tsinun Day (Teva, Israel),Acamol Tsinun Night (Teva, Israel),Acecat (Tiedra, Spain),Acenol (Galena, Pol.),Acephen (G & W, USA),Acertol (Lacer, Spain),Acet (Euro-Med, Philipp.),Acet (Pharmascience, Canad.),Acet (Pharmascience, Malaysia),Acet (Pharmascience, Singapore),Acet-2, Acet-3 (Pharmascience, Canad.),Aceta (Century, USA),Acetab (Romilo, Canad.),Acetaco (Legere, USA),Acetacol (PP Lab, Thai.),Acetadol (Medi-Rx, Philipp.),Acetafen (Infinity, Venez.),Acetafen (Rayere, Mex.),Aceta-Gesic (Rugby, USA),Acetalgine (Streuli, Switz.),Acetalis (Proula, Venez.),Acetamil (Ducto, Braz.),Acetaminophen, Aspirin, and Caffeine Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen, Chlorpheniramine Maleate, and Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen, Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide, Doxylamine Succinate, and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Oral Solution USP 32,Acetaminophen, Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride, and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen and Aspirin Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen and Caffeine Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Capsules USP 32,Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Oral Solution USP 32,Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Oral Suspension USP 32,Acetaminophen and Codeine Phosphate Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen and Diphenhydramine Citrate Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen and Pseudoephedrine Hydrochloride Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen Capsules USP 32,Acetaminophen Extended-Release Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen for Effervescent Oral Solution USP 32,Acetaminophen Oral Solution USP 32,Acetaminophen Oral Suspension USP 32,Acetaminophen Suppositories USP 32,Acetaminophen Tablets USP 32,Acetaminophen with Codeine (Pharmascience, Canad.),Acetamol (Abiogen, Ital.),Acetamol (Bergamo, Braz.),Aceta-P (PP Lab, Thai.),Acetapon (Pharmagen, S.Afr.),Acetapyrin-C (PP Lab, Thai.),Acetasil (Silom, Thai.),Aceta with Codeine (Century, USA),Acetazone Forte (Rougier, Canad.),Acetazone Forte C8 (Rougier, Canad.),Acet Codeine (Pharmascience, Canad.),Acetif (Novag, Mex.),Acetofen (Medley, Braz.),Acetolit (Mertens, Arg.),Aceval (Valmor, Venez.),Ac-Fast (Hormona, Mex.),Acide acetylsalicylique comp. "Radix" (Streuli, Switz.),Acid-X (BDI, USA),Acifein (Herbacos, Cz.),Aclophen (Nutripharm, USA),Actidue (Pfizer Consumer, Ital.),Actifed (Pfizer Sante, Fr.),Actifed-A (Wellcome, Canad.),Actifed Cold & Fever (GSK, S.Afr.),Actifed Cold & Sinus (Warner- Lambert, USA),Actifed jour et nuit (Pfizer Sante, Fr.),Actifed Plus (GSK, India),Actifed Plus (Pfizer Consumer, Canad.),Actifed Plus (Wellcome, USA),Actifed Sinus Daytime (Wellcome, USA),Actifed Sinus Nighttime (Wellcome, USA),Actiflu Plus (Cipla, India),Actigesic (GSK, Indon.),Actigrip (Pfizer Consumer, Ital.),Actimol (Pharmed, India),Actron (Bayer, Fr.),Actron (Bayer, Spain),Actron (Bayer, UK),Actron Compuesto (Bayer, Spain),Acuflu P (Apotex, S.Afr.),Acugesil (Apotex, S.Afr.),Acurate (Apotex, S.Afr.),Acustop (Apotex, S.Afr.),Acuten (Farma, Venez.),Acxen (Loren, Mex.),Adafen (Akdeniz, Turk.),Adalgen (Andromaco, Chile),Adalgur (Teofarma, Spain),Adalgur N (Angelini, Port.),Adco-Dol (Adcock Ingram, S.Afr.),Adco-Flupain (Adcock Ingram, S.Afr.),Adco-Kiddipayne (Adcock Ingram, S.Afr.),Adco- Payne (Adcock Ingram, S.Afr.),Adco-Sinal Co (Adcock Ingram, S.Afr.),Ado C (Kwizda, Austria),Adol (Julphar, UAE),Adol Allergy Sinus (Julphar, UAE),Adol Cold (Julphar, UAE),Adol Compound (Julphar, UAE),Adolef (Biomed, Ital.),Adolen (Konsuma, Venez.),Adol Extra (Julphar, UAE),Adolorin (Kwizda, Austria),Adol PM (Julphar, UAE),Adol Sinus (Julphar, UAE),Adoluron CC (Kwizda, Austria),Adona (Silesia, Chile),Aeknil (Therapeutic, Philipp.),AF Anacin (Whitehall-Robins, Canad.),Afebrin (Konimex, Indon.),Afebrin (Westmont, Hong Kong),Afebryl (Azevedos, Port.),Afebryl (Galephar, Fr.),Afebryl (Galepharma, Turk.),Afebryl (SMB, Belg.),Aferadol (Oberlin, Fr.),A-ferin (Bilim, Turk.),A-ferin (Bilim, Turk.),A-ferin (Bilim, Turk.),A-ferin (Bilim, Turk.),Afluvit (IPS, Neth.),Agrip (Plata, Arg.),Agrippin (Bernofarm, Indon.),Agurin (Nolver, Venez.),Akindol (Fournier, Fr.),Akindol (Fournier, Spain),Aknil (Sunthi Sepuri, Indon.),Alacetan (Asconex, Ger.),Alaxan (United Laboratories, Philipp.),Alaxan PI (Great Eastern, Thai.; Therapharma, Thai.),AlbaTemp (Alba, USA),Alcinal Plus (Rekah, Israel),Aldolor (CTI, Israel),Alergical Expect (Juventus, Spain),Alerid Cold (Cipla, India),Alex (Glenmark, India),Alex-P (Glenmark, India),Algafan (Darrow, Braz.),Algi-Butazolon (Dovalle, Braz.),Algi-Butazolon (Dovalle, Braz.),Algicler (Monserrat, Arg.),Algi-Danilon (Allergan-Frumtost, Braz.),Algidol (Almirall, Spain),Algidol (Sintesa, Belg.),Algifen (Sintofarma, Braz.),Algifene (Ferraz, Lynce, Port.),Algiflamanil (Neo Quimica, Braz.),Algi-Itamanil (Neo Quimica, Braz.),Algik (Azevedos, Port.),Algine (Adelco, Gr.),Alginflan (Teuto, Braz.),Alginina (Upsamedica, Spain),Algion (Saval, Chile),Algio-Truxa (Raffo, Arg.),Algi Peralgin (Infabra, Braz.),Algi-Reumac (Windson, Braz.),Algi-Reumatril (Hertz, Braz.),Algiseda (Sanitas, Arg.),Algisedal (Viatris, Fr.),Algisin (Ram, USA),Algist (Hoechst Marion Roussel, S.Afr.),Algi-Tanderil (Klinger, Braz.),Algitrin (Schering-Plough, Mex.),Algizolin (Luper, Braz.),Algoced (Pharmascience, Fr.),Algocod (SMB, Belg.),Algofina (Sanamed, Austria),Algogen (Nakornpatana, Thai.),Algolysin (Teva, Israel),Algomen (Menarini, Spain),Algon (Lavipharm, Gr.),Algophene (SMB, Belg.),Algopirina (Medisint, Ital.),Algostadol N (Stada, Ger.),Algostase (SMB, Belg.),Algostase Mono (SMB, Belg.),Algotropyl (Alpharma, Fr.),Alikal Dolor (GSK, Arg.),Alipal Forte (Arex, Venez.),Alivax (Vivax, Venez.),Alivet (Leti, Venez.),Alivet Dia (Leti, Venez.),Alivetforte (Leti, Venez.),Alivetnoc (Leti, Venez.),Aljil (Yeni, Turk.),Alka-Seltzer Advanced Formula (Miles Consumer Healthcare, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold (Miles Consumer Healthcare, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold & Cough (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold & Cough (Miles Consumer Healthcare, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Day & Night Cold (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Day & Night Cold (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Day Cold (Bayer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Day Non-Drowsy Cold (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Night Cold (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Night-Time Cold (Miles Consumer Healthcare, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Nose & Throat (Bayer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Original Cold Formula (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Regular Seltzer Multi-Symptom Cold Relief (Bayer, USA),Alka-Seltzer Plus Sinus (Bayer Consumer, USA),Alka-Seltzer XS (Bayer Consumer, UK),Alkasol-P (Stadmed, India),Alka XS Go (Bayer Consumer, UK),Allerest Allergy & Sinus Relief (Heritage Consumer, USA),Allerest Headache Strength (Ciba, USA),Allerest Sinus Pain Formula (Ciba, USA),Allergy Sinus (Vita Health, Canad.),All-Nite Cold Formula (Major, USA),Almigripe (Jaba, Port.),Alpara (Molex Ayus, Indon.),Alphamol (Molex Ayus, Indon.),Alpirex (Berman, Mex.),Alres (Elmor, Venez.),Alsiphene (Alsi, Canad.),Alsogil (Also, Ital.),Alsogil (Also, Ital.),Alumadrine (Fleming, USA),Alvedon (Astra, Norw.),Alvedon (AstraZeneca,



13 Conditions for credits & examination in General Pharmacology (in ) credit > success in 2 interim tests during semester (1 test: general pharmacology, 1 test: prescription writing) + at least 80% attendance of practicals > examination: final test (general pharmacology) In case of failure, a student will have a possibility of another test (2nd test). In case of failure in the 2nd test, a 3rd test will be possible as the last chance.

14 Terms of exams (tests) : Jan 24, :30 Jan 31, :00 Feb 7, :00 Feb 14, :00 Capacity: 120 students for each term

15 The questions (in a multiple choice form) of the final test will be stemming from the following topics: 1. Introduction to pharmacology. Drugs, drug laws, drug registration, ATC classification of drugs, SPC, drug databases, information on drugs 2. Principles of pharmacodynamics. Molecular mechanisms of drug effects - drugs acting via receptors, ion channels, transport proteins, nitric oxide, peptides, by inhibition of enzymes 3. Principles of pharmacokinetics 4. Biotransformation of drugs and their fate in the organismus 5. Principles of pharmacogenetics 6. Adverse drug reactions. Regulatory agencies (EMA). Pharmacovigilance. Drug interactions 7. Principles of toxicology - intoxications, termination of drug effect. 8. Drug prescription 9. Autonomic pharmacology - parasympathetic system. 10. Autonomic pharmacology - sympathetic system 11. Drugs acting via dopamine, serotonin, histamine 12. Principles of pharmacologic blood pressure control 13. Drug use in pregnancy and lactation 14. Drug and remedy addiction 15. New drug development. Preclinical and clinical trials. Evidence of drug efficacy. EBM

16 The *.ppt set of this lecture will appear at:


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