Presentation on theme: "Evidenced Based Analgesic Efficacy in Post-Surgical Dental Pain Elliot V Hersh DMD, MS, PhD Professor Oral Surgery and Pharmacology University of Pennsylvania."— Presentation transcript:
Evidenced Based Analgesic Efficacy in Post-Surgical Dental Pain Elliot V Hersh DMD, MS, PhD Professor Oral Surgery and Pharmacology University of Pennsylvania School of Dental Medicine Chair –IRB#3, Office of Regulatory Affairs University of Pennsylvania
Peripheral Targets for Analgesia Courtesy of Sharon Gordon DMD, PhD
Pain Syndrome Total Pain Relief Index Menstrual 17.5 Arthritic 18.8 Dental (general) 19.5 Post-Herpetic 22.6 Dental Impaction (Partial Bony) 23.2 Phantom Limb 25.0 Cancer 26.0 Back Pain 26.3 Dental Impaction (Full Bony) 32.4 Adapted From Melzack,: Pain 1976, 1:277-299
Barden J, Edwards JE, McQuay HJ, Moore RA. Pain 2004;107:86-90. In response to placebo more than 60% of dental pain trials had less than 15% of their patients achieving 50% maximum pain relief compare to only 40% of other postsurgical pain models. In fact only 11% of dental pain trials had more than 30% of their patients achieving more than 50% pain relief from placebo compared to more than 30% of other postsurgical pain models.
Basic Principles Of Clinical Studies Double-blind Random allocation of treatment to subjects Inclusion of placebo Inclusion of standard treatments Identical appearance of study medication
ASPIRIN 650 mg (N=32) ACETAMINOPHEN 650 mg (N=56) PLACEBO (N=32) PLACEBO (N=55) Cooper, Oral Surgery Arch Intern Med 1981;141:282-285
Tylenol's maximum dose reduced to help prevent overdoses Jul 28, 2011 5:35 PM The maximum daily dose for Tylenol will be lowered on all acetaminophen-containing adult products from 4,000 mg (8 Extra Strength Tylenol pills) to 3,000 mg (6 pills), the manufacturer said today. The move is intended to reduce the risk of accidental acetaminophen overdoses that can lead to liver failure and death. Effective January 1, 2012. In addition, in 4 months all opioid combination drugs (i.e. acetaminophen plus hydrocodone or oxycodone will not be allowed to contain more than 325 mg APAP per tablet!! VICODIN WON”T EXIST AS WE KNOW IT!!!
RO NHCOCH 3 HO NHCOCH 3 O Acetaminophen Conjugated metabolite N-Acetyl-benzoquinonemine (NAPQI) CYP2E1 (5%) Glucuronidation (95%) Glutathione Active Inactive Hepatotoxic From Hersh EV, Moore PA. JADA 2004;135:298-311. R =
PLACEBO ACETAMINOPHEN 600 mg + CODEINE 60 mg ACETAMINOPHEN 600 mg CODEINE 60 mg Beaver, Postsurgical Arch Intern Med 1981; 141:293-300. N = 80 (20 per group)
O CH 3 O N-CH 3 Codeine (In Tylenol® #3) CYP2D6 O HO N-CH 3 Morphine CH 3 O Tramadol (Ultram®) CYP2D6 HO O-Desmethyl Tramadol OH CH 2 N CH 3 OH CH 2 N CH 3 Analgesic Prodrugs 2D6 Inhibitors: Quinidine, chlorpheniraminine, fluoxitene, paroxitene From Hersh EV, Moore PA. JADA 2004;135:298-311.
Sedation, dizziness, impairment of normal daily function Respiratory depression Postural hypotension Suppression of cough reflex Urinary retention, constipation Nausea and vomiting Limitations of Centrally Acting Agents: Acute
Three Categories of GI Adverse Events Associated With NSAID Use * Gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms –Heartburn, nausea, dyspepsia, vomiting, abdominal pain (up to 50% with chronic use) Mucosal lesions seen on endoscopy or x-ray –gastroduodenal erosions and ulcers (up to 90% with chronic use) Serious GI complications –Bleeding, perforation, or obstruction that can lead to hospitalization or death (1-3% with chronic use) * Singh G. Am J Med. 1998;105(1B):31S–38S.
Drug ClassRelative Risk NSAIDs SSRIs NSAIDs + SSRIs 3.7 2.6 15.6 Relative Risk of GI Bleed Compared to Non-Users Of Either Drug Class De Abajo et al. British Medical Journal 1999;319:1106 --1109
LIMITATIONS OF NSAID ANALGESICS Plateau of analgesic effect Gastrointestinal upset/toxicity Inhibition of platelets Tinnitus Specific contraindications –Ulcers –Aspirin/NSAID sensitive asthma –Aspirin/NSAID allergy –Reyes Syndrome (Aspirin)
Gordon S M, Dionne RA et al. Anesth Analg 2002;95:1351-1357 Figure 3. Pain intensity in the immediate postoperative period over the first 4 h after surgery, depicted as the sum of pain intensity (upper panel), and at 48 h after surgery (lower panel), as measured by a 200-mm verbal descriptor scale
Adapted from Gaskell H, Derry S, Moore RA, McQuay HJ. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jul 8;(3):CD002763. Review.
Stepwise Guidelines for Acute Postoperative Pain Management in Dentistry Pain Severity Analgesic Recommendation Mild PainIbuprofen 200-400 mg q 4-6 hours: as needed (p.r.n.) pain Mild-Moderate Pain Ibuprofen 400-600 mg q 6 hours: fixed interval for 24 hours Then ibuprofen 400 mg q 4-6 hours: as needed (p.r.n.) pain Moderate to Severe Pain Ibuprofen 400-600 mg plus APAP 500 mg q 6 hours: fixed interval for 24 hours Then ibuprofen 400 mg plus APAP 500 mg q 6 hours p.r.n. pain Severe Pain Ibuprofen 400-600 mg plus APAP 600/ hydrocodone 10 mg q 6 hours: fixed interval for 24-48 hours Then ibuprofen 400-600 mg plus APAP 500 mg q 6 hours p.r.n. pain
Conclusions In postsurgical dental pain studies NSAIDs at optimal doses are superior in efficacy to single entity opioids and are at least as efficacious as optimal doses of peripheral-narcotic combination drugs. In postsurgical dental pain studies NSAIDs have a much more favorable side effect profile than agents that contain an opioid. The use of pre-emptive NSAIDs and long-acting local anesthetics appear to greatly delay the onset of post-surgical dental pain and may have benefit beyond the immediate postoperative period. NSAIDs should be considered the first line drugs in most cases of postsurgical dental pain.