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INFLUENTIAL RESEARCHERS OF PSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIORAL B.F. Skinner 1904-1990 American Behaviorist Inventor University Of Indiana/Harvard University Influenced.

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Presentation on theme: "INFLUENTIAL RESEARCHERS OF PSYCHOLOGY BEHAVIORAL B.F. Skinner 1904-1990 American Behaviorist Inventor University Of Indiana/Harvard University Influenced."— Presentation transcript:



3 BEHAVIORAL B.F. Skinner American Behaviorist Inventor University Of Indiana/Harvard University Influenced by Pavlov and Watson Known for his work on operant conditioning and schedules of reinforcement Author of Walden Two novel Notably debated language acquisition with Chomsky Named Most Influential Psychologist in 2002

4 SOCIAL/CULTURAL G. Stanley Hall American Educational and Developmental Psychologist President of Clark University Studied under William James and earned 1 st Psychology PhD in the United States First president of the American Psychological Association Adolescent “Storm and Stress” Studied gender and racial differences among people

5 FUNCTIONALISM William James American Functionalist and Philosopher Harvard University Wrote Principles of Psychology, the first psychological textbook Contributor to James-Lange Theory of Emotion (Experience of emotion follows physiological arousal) Studied mysticism and psychology

6 Mary Calkins American Researcher and Educator/Philosopher/ Pioneer Wellesley University First Female President of the APA Satisfied requirements for Psychology PhD from Harvard but was denied the degree due to her gender. Explored dreams and the self in her research

7 STRUCTURALISM Edward Titchener British Structuralist/Educator Cornell University Studied under Wilhelm Wundt Established Structuralism and developed introspection to explore structure of the mind Coined the term “empathy” Instructed Margaret Floy Washburn, the first female to be granted a PhD in Psychology

8 Wilhelm Wundt German Physician/Professor/ Psychologist/Researcher University of Leipzig Considered the father of experimental psychology, Wundt established the first research laboratory for psychology at the University of Leipzig Credited with making psychology a science of its own Established the first journal for psychological research

9 Margaret Floy Washburn American Experimental Psychologist/Pioneer Wells College/University of Cincinnati Was the first female awarded the first PhD (Mary Calkins having been denied due to gender) Wrote on comparative psychology and animal psychology APA President 1921

10 PSYCHODYNAMIC Sigmund Freud Austrian Physician/Therapist/ Pioneer Best known for work on the unconscious mind, Freud developed psychoanalysis and the psychoanalytic perspective Theorized personality as the Id, Ego, and Superego and introduced defense mechanisms, free association, and psychosexual development Perhaps the most recognized psychologist of all time and the face of psychology to millions worldwide

11 Franz Gall German Anatomist/Physician Developed phrenology to explore personality and mental faculty through skull shape Although empirically refuted, phrenology hinted at brain structures with specific functions supported by modern neuroscience Gall and phrenology were criticized by the Roman Catholic Church and Napoleon

12 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Mary Ainsworth American Developmental Psychologist Johns Hopkins University/University of Virginia Developed theories of attachment style in children 1985 Award for Distinguished Contributions to Child Development APA Distinguished Scientific Contribution Award 1989

13 PSYCHODYNAMIC Karen Horney German Psychoanalyst Institute For Psychoanalysis/ The New School (NY) Often labeled as a Neo-Freudian, Horney did differ from him on the issue of childhood sexuality and aggression Countered Freud’s idea of female penis envy with male womb envy Pioneer in female psychiatry

14 PSYCHODYNAMIC Anna Freud Austrian Psychoanalyst Daughter of Sigmund Freud, Anna Freud made a name for herself exploring the unconscious mind Anna Freud is considered a founder of psychoanalytic child psychology, emphasizing the role of the ego in development

15 EVOLUTIONARY Sir Francis Galton English Psychometrician/ Statistician/Geneticist Coined the term eugenics and was first to refer to nature versus nurture A cousin of Charles Darwin, Galton was heavily influenced by his cousin’s work. He studied genetic and environmental influence on human abilities Galton either developed or promoted statistical concepts such as correlation, regression to the mean, standard deviation, and the normal curve

16 BIOLOGICAL Paul Broca French Physician and Anatomist University of Paris Medical School Influenced by Charles Darwin Discovered brain regions responsible for speech production (Broca’s Area) while studying aphasia His work led to further exploration of brain lateralization

17 BIOLOGICAL Carl Wernicke German Physician/Anatomist Identified area of temporal lobe, now known as Wernicke’s Area, responsible for language comprehension. Impairment known as Wernicke’s Aphasia Also contributed to understanding of brain damage in an alcoholic (Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome)

18 BIOLOGICAL Roger Sperry American Neurobiologist/ Nobel Laureate University of Chicago/Caltech Further explored effects of split-brain surgery in which the corpus callosum is severed to treat epileptic seizures. Sperry and Michael Gazzaniga confirmed the lateralization of brain functioning Won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1981 Died as a result of complications from the neurodegenerative disorder Kuru, which he acquired through frequent exposure to brains

19 BIOLOGICAL Robert Sapolsky 1957 American Biologist/Educator/ Neurologist Stanford University Sapolsky is known for his studies on the effects of stress in primates. He has studied baboon troops in Kenya for a quarter century His work has led to a better understanding of stress and the physical damage humans can experience as a result of psychological states Is working on gene therapies to fight neurological damage due to stress

20 Ernst Weber German Physician Author Leipzig University Founder of experimental psychology Studied sensation Developed Weber’s Law to explain the just-noticeable difference

21 BEHAVIORAL John Garcia 1917 American Behaviorist UCLA/Harvard Medical School/ University of Utah/SUNY Stony Brook Identified the “Garcia Effect” or conditioned taste aversion. These experiments altered the prevailing view that for conditioning to work, the US had to be presented immediately after the NS His work expanded understanding of classical conditioning principles first identified by Ivan Pavlov

22 HUMANISTIC Martin Seligman 1942 American Cognitive/Humanistic Psychologist/Educator University of Pennsylvania Best known for developing Positive Psychology movement, scientifically exploring what can go right as opposed to what can go wrong Wrote positive DSM (Character Strengths and Virtues) Developed theory of learned helplessness APA President 1998

23 GESTALT Max Wertheimer German Gestalt Psychologist University of Berlin/The New School New York Considered one of the founders of Gestalt Psychology along with Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler Gestalt was used to explain human perception (figure-ground relationships)

24 BEHAVIORAL Ivan Pavlov Russian Physiologist and Psychologist/Researcher While researching the salivary reflex in dogs, Pavlov stumbled across principles of classical conditioning, identifying conditioned and unconditioned stimuli, conditioned and unconditioned response, neutral stimuli, generalization, discrimination, and spontaneous recovery. This discovery led to the founding of Behavioral Psychology Won the Nobel Prize in Physiology in 1904

25 BEHAVIORAL Edward Thorndike American Behaviorist Teachers College/Columbia University Identified the Law of Effect (a behavior that is reinforced is likely to recur) which inspired the experiments of BF Skinner. Thorndike’s experiments had cats freeing themselves from a puzzle box to receive a reinforcer APA President 1912 Created two early versions of the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery

26 BEHAVIORAL Albert Bandura 1925 Canadian Social-Cognitivist Stanford University Conducted the famous Bobo doll experiment in 1961, emphasizing the roll of aggressive modeling on aggressive behavior in children Expanded on social-cognitive theory, and contributed the notion of reciprocal determinism which explained human behavior in terms of an exchange between cognitive, environmental, and behavioral factors APA President 1974

27 BEHAVIORAL John B. Watson American Behaviorist/ Researcher Inspired by Pavlov, founded Behaviorist perspective in psychology Best known for controversial “Little Albert” study in which a child is conditioned with a fear After the Albert study, Watson turned to advertising, using conditioning principles to sell products like Maxwell House coffee

28 COGNITIVE Albert Ellis American Therapist/ Pioneer Credited with founding Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Developed Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) Ranked 2 nd most influential therapist, placing between Carl Rogers (1 st ) and Sigmund Freud (3 rd ) Prolific writer on research into love, sexuality, and religion in psychology

29 COGNITIVE Elizabeth Loftus American Researcher/ Educator UC Irvine Known for research into the misinformation effect and false memories Highest ranking female on a list of the 100 most influential psychological researchers Former president of Association for Psychological Science Often called as an expert in trials in which eyewitness testimony is under question

30 COGNITIVE Noam Chomsky 1928 American Linguist/Educator/ Radical Massachusetts Institute of Technology Developed idea of universal grammar and a language acquisition device Publicly debated language acquisition with BF Skinner Prolific author on subjects including language, politics, and media

31 COGNITIVE Hermann Ebbinghaus German Experimental Psychologist University of Berlin/University of Breslau Best known for the Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve, confirming that memory is strengthened through rehearsal Also identified the serial-position effect, developed sentence completion tests to assess implicit memory, and discovered an optical illusion known as the Ebbinghaus Illusion

32 COGNITIVE Daniel Kahneman 1934 Israeli Cognitive Psychologist/ Nobel Laureate Princeton University/UC Berkeley/Hebrew University of Jerusalem Along with Amos Tversky expanded on human cognitive errors (heuristics and biases) Won Nobel Prize in Economics for Prospect Theory (value of losses or gains) Also studies Hedonic Psychology (exploring happiness and what makes us happy)

33 COGNITIVE Aaron Beck 1921 American Cognitive Therapist University of Pennsylvania Considered the father of cognitive therapy Developed self-assessments for depression and anxiety Influenced Martin Seligman to work on learned helplessness

34 COGNITIVE Lev Vygotsky Russian Developmental Psychologist Developed theories on childhood internalization, play, thought, and language Unlike Piaget, Vygotsky is considered a continuum rather than stage theorist Created the theory of Zone of Proximal Development in which children learn how to complete increasingly complex tasks with assistance from a more experienced individual

35 COGNITIVE Richard Atkinson 1929 American Educator/Administrator Stanford University/UC San Diego Along with Richard Shiffrin, Atkinson developed the theory of human memory/memory model with sensory, short-term, and long-term memories being distinct parts of memory at large 17 th President of the University of California and former chancellor of UC San Diego. Atkinson urged the University of California to drop the SAT-I as part of its admission assessments, leading to significant changes in the new SAT

36 BIOLOGICAL Walter Cannon American Physiologist and Educator Harvard School of Medicine Former president of the American Physiological Society Coined the term “fight or flight response” and expanded understanding of homeostasis Co-developer of the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion (physiological arousal and experience of emotion are simultaneous)

37 COGNITIVE Alfred Binet French Psychologist Along with Theodore Simon, Binet developed a rating scale to help identify Parisian school children, the first intelligence test Binet and Simon’s rating scale was later adapted by Lewis Terman in the United States into the Stanford-Binet test, yielding a comparative IQ score

38 COGNITIVE Raymond Cattell British Personality/Trait Theorist Columbia University/Clark University/Harvard University/University of Illinois Sought to study personality scientifically, and expanded on factor analysis Developed 16PF (Sixteen Personality Factor) Questionnaire Explored the existence of both crystalized and fluid intelligence APA Gold Medal Winner for Lifetime Achievement in Psychological Science

39 COGNITIVE L.L. Thurstone American Psychometrician and Researcher University of Chicago/University of North Carolina Helped to develop factor analysis Studied intelligence and applied standard deviation and the normal curve to intelligence testing Believed in seven primary mental abilities rather than a singular overall intelligence APA President 1932

40 David Wechsler Romanian Psychometrician Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital Developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and a number of variants The WAIS is the most widely used psychological assessment used today

41 COGNITIVE Stanley Schachter American Social Psychologist/ Educator Columbia University Along with Jerome Singer developed the Schachter-Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (physiological arousal and cognitive labeling yields experience of emotion

42 COGNITIVE Howard Gardner 1943 American Cognitive Psychologist Harvard University Best known for theory of multiple intelligences, which emphasizes human learning/processing as a range of different possibilities Gardner originally identified 7, then 8, intelligences including spatial, linguistic, logical, kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic Gardner’s theory has been influential in education, leading to several reforms

43 Lewis Terman American Educational Psychologist Stanford University Created the Stanford-Binet IQ test, once the most widely used measure of intelligence Researched genetic links to intelligence, even joining the eugenics movement Conducted longitudinal studies of gifted children APA President 1923

44 Paul Ekman 1934 American Psychologist/ Educator UC San Francisco Conducted studies on the universality of facial expression of emotion Developed science of microexpressions, used in lie detection Served as the science advisor to Lie To Me, which depicted the science of microexpressions

45 COGNITIVE Jean Piaget Swiss Developmental/ Cognitive Psychologist Developed four stage theory of cognitive development (Sensorimotor to Formal Operations) Developed theories of assimilation, accommodation, conservation, and schemas Perhaps the most influential developmental psychologist, Piaget’s theories have shaped modern education

46 COGNITIVE Lawrence Kohlberg American Cognitive/ Developmental Psychologist University of Chicago/Harvard University Developed stage theory of Moral Development, dividing moral decision-making into 3 levels (Preconventional, Conventional, Post Conventional) or 6 more specific stages Once identified as the 30 th “most eminent” psychologist of the 20 th Century

47 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Harry Harlow American Research Psychologist University of Wisconsin-Madison Conducted infamous experiments on attachment with rhesus monkeys in which babies were taken from their mothers and “raised” by wire “surrogates” Experiments support the need for contact comfort from a caregiver as being more important than food supply. Results contrary to both behaviorist is psychoanalytic belief May have been responsible for the formation of the A.L.F.

48 PSYCHODYNAMIC Erik Erikson German Developmental Psychologist/Psychoanalyst Known for his theory of Psychosocial Development (8 stages/challenges to specific age ranges) Coined the term Identity Crisis Taught at Harvard, Yale, and Berkeley without ever having earned a BA

49 Elisabeth Kubler-Ross Swiss Psychiatrist University of Chicago Known for the Kubler-Ross model or the five stages of grief, in which she asserts people experience several distinct stages in response to grief at the end of their lives or for other losses experienced Supported the hospice care movement Inducted into the American National Women’s Hall of Fame in 2007

50 PSYCHOANALYTICAL Hermann Rorschach Swiss Psychiatrist Studied under Eugen Bleuler, who also taught Carl Jung Developed the Rorschach Ink Blot projective test, used by psychologists to assess personality

51 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Gordon Allport American Social Psychologist and Trait Theorist/Educator Harvard University Developed early Trait theory of personality by identifying trait descriptors from a dictionary Broke traits into three categories (cardinal, central, and secondary traits) Known for arguing against psychoanalytic theory, favoring the situation over unconscious determinants

52 HUMANISTIC Abraham Maslow American Humanist/Educator Brandeis University/Columbia University An early Humanistic psychologist, Maslow believed that people are driven to fulfill their potential Known for his Hierarchy of Needs, which emphasizes the quest to fulfill potential by satisfying lower order needs before moving up toward self-actualization Saw humanists as studying the healthier half of psychology

53 HUMANISTIC Carl Rogers American Humanist/Therapist University of Chicago/University of Wisconsin Rogers is considered a founder of humanistic psychology, and applied several humanistic principles to therapy Known for client-centered therapy and urged therapists to practice unconditional positive regard Ranked 6 th most eminent psychologist of the 20 th century, the 2 nd highest therapist behind Sigmund Freud

54 Charles Spearman English Psychometrician/ Psychologist University College London Believed that intelligence was a single general trait, g, and supported this with statistics Involved in development of factor analysis, which looked at patterns among variables in a study

55 PSYCHODYNAMIC Carl Jung Swiss Psychiatrist Best known for his concept of a collective unconscious, from which all humans share a reservoir of unconscious past experience Developed idea of archetypes as part of his creation of analytical psychology Studied dreams and the occult, and sought to include religion in psychoanalysis

56 BEHAVIORAL Joseph Wolpe South African Therapist/ Educator University of Virginia/ Temple University Major figure in behavioral therapy Developed systematic desensitization

57 David Rosenhan American Psychologist Stanford University/Princeton University/University of Pennsylvania Conducted the Rosenhan Experiment in 1973, which sent confederates into mental institutions with feigned symptoms to expose inconsistency of psychiatric diagnosis and perils of labeling

58 Thomas Szasz 1920 Hungarian Psychiatrist State University of New York Syracuse Has famously criticized psychiatry and society for mistreating the mentally ill by labeling them, force medicating individuals, and creating the stigma of mental illness Szasz argues that mental illness is not a disease but rather a problem in living and that what we call mental illness is a socially developed construct differentiated from normal behavior. In different times or circumstances, what we think of as ill could be perfectly rational

59 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Solomon Asch Polish Gestalt and Social Psychologist Swarthmore College Best known for experiments on conformity in which a participant was socially influenced to give a wrong answer on the length of lines when in group scenarios Conformity experiments later influenced the Milgram studies on obedience. Asch served as Milgram’s PhD supervisor at Harvard

60 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Mamie and Kenneth Clark / American Psychologists Northside Center for Child Development/City College of New York Together, the Clarks conducted experiments on the effects of internalized racism The studies had black children choose between otherwise identical white and black dolls. The children showed preference for the white doll Testified as witnesses for Brown v. Board of Education

61 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Philip Zimbardo 1933 American Social Psychologist/ Educator/Television Host Stanford University/Columbia University/Yale University/NYU Conducted the Stanford Prison Experiment, highlighting the power of the situation and role playing Started the Shyness Clinic and the Hero Project APA President 2002 Host of Discovering Psychology

62 COGNITIVE Robert Sternberg 1949 American Cognitive Psychologist Oklahoma State University/ Tufts University/Yale University Developed Triangular Theory of Love (intimacy, passion, and commitment) and Triarchic Theory of Intelligence (analytical, practical, and creative) While at Tufts, developed a method of screening undergraduate admissions beyond SAT scores and other traditional methods APA President 2003

63 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Leon Festinger American Social Psychologist Massachusetts Institute of Technology/University of Michigan/Stanford University Developed the theory of cognitive dissonance, the result of conflict between one’s beliefs, behaviors, goals, etc… Developed theory of social comparison, explaining that people come to understand themselves through comparison with others (upwards and downwards)

64 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Stanley Milgram American Social Psychologist Yale University/City University of New York (CUNY) Best known for his studies on obedience to authority at Yale in which participants were led to believe they we administering electric shocks to another individual. The study revealed how willing people are to follow an authority, even if the demanded actions go against conscience Conducted the small-world and lost letter experiments

65 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Alfred Kinsey American Biologist/Educator Indiana University Conducted early experiments into human sexuality and developed the Kinsey Scale Although his methodology and even results were questioned, Kinsey is credited with contributing to the sexual revolution years after his death

66 SOCIAL/CULTURAL Daniel Gilbert 1957 American Social Psychologist Harvard University Co-writer and host of This Emotional Life (PBS) Conducted research into affective forecasting and cognitive bias

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